© 1997

In-Situ Microscopy in Materials Research

Leading International Research in Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopies

  • Pratibha L. Gai

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xviii
  2. Gerasimos Daniel Danilatos
    Pages 13-44
  3. Ludmila Fedina, Anton Gutakovskii, Alexander Aseev, Joseph Van Landuyt, Jan Vanhellemont
    Pages 63-92
  4. Pratibha L. Gai, Edward D. Boyes
    Pages 123-147
  5. Takeo Kamino, Hiroyasu Saka
    Pages 173-199
  6. Hiroki Minoda, Katsumichi Yagi
    Pages 201-224
  7. Ken-ichi Tanaka, Yuji Matsumoto, Takaya Fujita, Yuji Okawa
    Pages 225-261
  8. Back Matter
    Pages 331-336

About this book


2. High Temperature UHV-STM System 264 3. Hydrogen Desorption Process on Si (111) Surface 264 4. (7x7) - (1 xl) Phase Transition on Si (111) Surface 271 Step Shifting under dc Electric Fields 275 5. 6. Conclusions 280 Acknowledgements and References 281 12. DYNAMIC OBSERVATION OF VORTICES IN SUPERCONDUCTORS USING ELECTRON WAVES 283 by Akira Tonomura 1. Introduction 283 2. Experimental Method 284 2. 1 Interference Microscopy 284 2. 2 Lorentz Microscopy 287 Observation of Superconducting Vortices 288 3. 3. 1 Superconducting Vortices Observed by Interference Microscopy 288 3. 1. 1 Profile Mode 288 3. 1. 2 Transmission Mode 291 3. 2 Superconducting Vortices Observed by Lorentz Microscopy 293 3. 3 Observation of Vortex Interaction with Pinning Centers 294 3. 3. 1 Surface Steps 295 3. 3. 2 Irradiated Point Defects 296 4. Conclusion 298 References 299 13. TEM STUDIES OF SOME STRUCTURALLY FLEXIBLE SOLIDS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS 301 by Ray L. Withers and John G. Thompson 1. Introduction 301 2. Tetrahedrally Comer-Connected Framework Structures 302 3. Tetragonal a-PbO 311 4. Compositionally Flexible Anion-Deficient Fluorites and the "Defect Fluorite" to C-type Sesquioxide Transition 320 5. Summary and Conclusions 327 Acknowledgements and References 327 Author Index 331 Subject Index 333 List of Contributors A. ASEEV Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences Novosibirsk, 630090, pr. ac. , Lavrentjeva 13, RUSSIA E. BAUER Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University Tempe, AZ 85287-1504, U. S. A. G. H.


adsorption electron electron microscopy epitaxy LEEM material materials science microscopy semiconductor semiconductor physics STM superconductor thin films transmission electron microscopy vortices

Editors and affiliations

  • Pratibha L. Gai
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Research and Development, Science and Engineering LaboratoriesDuPont, Experimental StationWilmingtonUSA

About the editors

Pratibha L. Gai is a senior research associate at the Central Research and Development, Science and Engineering Laboratories, DuPont and an adj. professor at the University of Delaware, USA. After graduating with a PhD in physics from the University of Cambridge, England, she taught and conducted research, leading the surface reactions group at the University of Oxford, England. She was elected a fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford. Her research interests are theories and experimental aspects of electron diffraction, defects in solids, ceramics, superconductors, semiconductors, heterogeneous catalysis and chemical synthesis. She has published about 22 research papers and reviews and has given numerous invited lectures internationally. She has received several educational awards and joint grants for her key fundamental work on in-situ electron microscopy of heterogeneous catalysts, including by the Royal Society, UK and the American Chemical Society. She is a member and fellow of several professional scientific societies, Chartered Engineer of the Institute of Materials, UK and is on the editorial board of international scientific journals.

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