Chest Pain with Normal Coronary Angiograms: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management

  • Juan Carlos Kaski

Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 213)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xvii
  2. Juan Carlos Kaski
    Pages 1-12
  3. Steve G. Potts, Christopher Bass
    Pages 13-32
  4. John S. de Caestecker
    Pages 33-47
  5. Ole Frøbert, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Jens Peder Bagger
    Pages 61-67
  6. Jens Peder Bagger
    Pages 81-89
  7. Kensuke Egashira, Masahiro Mohri, Akira Takeshita
    Pages 91-99
  8. Peter Collins
    Pages 115-122
  9. Filippo Crea, Antonio Buffon, Achille Gaspardone, Gaetano Lanza
    Pages 123-133
  10. Walter S. Watson, Abhijit Chaudhuri, Georgina T. McCreath, Peter O. Behan
    Pages 143-149
  11. Attilio Maseri, Gaetano Antonio Lanza, Antonino Buffon
    Pages 151-158
  12. Felipe Atienza, José A. De Velasco
    Pages 187-194
  13. Giuseppe M. C. Rosano, Gabriele Fragasso, Sergio L. Chierchia
    Pages 195-201
  14. Giuseppe M. C. Rosano, Gabriele Fragasso, Sergio L. Chierchia
    Pages 211-219
  15. Francisco Leyva, John C. Stevenson
    Pages 221-242
  16. Andrew Henderson
    Pages 243-249
  17. Wolfgang Motz, Sibylle Scheler
    Pages 269-279
  18. Giuseppe Vassalli, Augusto Gallino
    Pages 293-304
  19. Back Matter
    Pages 305-308

About this book


This book is timely and challenging. Within its pages are commentaries and opinions on the scientific background and explanatory ideas for a complex of symptoms and investigations known as syndrome X. The commonest cause by far of angina pectoris is coronary artery obstruction due to atheromatous lesions both within the wall of the artery and intruding into the lumen; in such patients it is expected that there maybe ST segment depression on atrial pacing or on an exercise test indicating myocardial ischemia. Syndrome X was a term first used in an editorial written by Kemp in 1973. He was referring to patients in group X in a paper from Arbogast and Bourassa. Patients in group X had three features, namely angina as judged on a clinical history, alterations of the ST segment on the electrocardiogram during atrial pacing and smooth unobstructed coronary arteries (presumed normal) as assessed by the technique of coronary angiography. The changes on the electrocardiogram, conventionally indicative of myocardial ischemia, could not be explained on the basis of any abnormality of the coronary arteries and Kemp named the complex of fmdings syndrome X because of this seeming paradox and the lack of a single explanation. In the last thirty-one years there has been substantial scientific interest in this syndrome giving rise to a large number of publications. The name syndrome X has led to considerable confusion. Physicians are familiar with the X chromosome and with X linked congenital disorders.


cardiovascular cardiovascular system echocardiography heart heart transplantation hypertension transplantation

Editors and affiliations

  • Juan Carlos Kaski
    • 1
  1. 1.St George’s Hospital Medical SchoolLondonUK

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999
  • Publisher Name Springer, Boston, MA
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-1-4613-7360-5
  • Online ISBN 978-1-4615-5181-2
  • Series Print ISSN 0166-9842
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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