© 2014

Handbook of Career Development

International Perspectives

  • Gideon Arulmani
  • Anuradha J. Bakshi
  • Frederick T. L. Leong
  • A. G. Watts
  • Extends existing theory, models and methods into wider contexts

  • Presents ideas pertaining to lesser explored aspects of career guidance

  • Relevant to the wide range of newly emerging career counseling contexts around the world


Part of the International and Cultural Psychology book series (ICUP)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxxiii
  2. Gideon Arulmani, Anuradha J. Bakshi, Frederick T. L. Leong, A. G. Watts
    Pages 1-10
  3. New Directions in Theoretical Perspectives for Career Development and Guidance

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 11-11
    2. Mary McMahon, Mark Watson, Wendy Patton
      Pages 29-41
    3. Frederick T. L. Leong, Marina Pearce
      Pages 67-79
    4. V. R. Devika, Gideon Arulmani
      Pages 105-117
  4. The Person in Contexts Across the Life Span

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 119-119
    2. Salvatore Soresi, Laura Nota, Lea Ferrari, Maria Cristina Ginevra
      Pages 149-172
  5. Boom, Bust, and Suitability: Effective Career Preparation in a Volatile Labor Market

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 223-224
    2. Sachin Kumar, Gideon Arulmani
      Pages 225-239
    3. Stelina Chatzichristou, Gideon Arulmani
      Pages 241-254
    4. Heidi Agbenyo, Kathleen Collett
      Pages 255-270

About this book


As a quintessentially human activity, work transcends countries and cultures.  But as economies falter and labor markets go global, the concept of career can seem unrealistic—even alien—to many in economically developing and developed nations alike.  The challenge to today's career professional is providing relevant services in the face of rapid, pervasive change.

The Handbook of Career Development assembles theoretical and practical innovations on a world scale.  Written by professionals from diverse countries and fields, this progressive resource presents career guidance and workforce development as cross-cultural, multidisciplinary, and responsive to contemporary realities.  Advanced analysis allows a deeper understanding of the long-term needs of workers as varied as indigenous peoples, older women, immigrants, international students, and the recovering mentally ill.  Easy-to-apply career service strategies are outlined for each of these special groups as also for others.  And the book's multicultural vision entails reinterpreting the notion of career for the economically developing world, including for those engaged in traditional, rural and craft occupations.  Among the areas covered in the Handbook

  • Innovations in career theory.
  • The person in contexts across the lifespan.
  • Effective career preparation in a volatile labor market.
  • Green careers: work, environmental sustainability, and social justice.
  • Enabling culturally sensitive career counseling.
  • Services for special groups.
  • New directions for assessment, practice, counselor training, competencies, and standards.

The Handbook of Career Development opens out realistic new paths for all involved in career services, including counselors, psychologists, social workers, human resource managers, educators, youth workers, and policymakers.  It is a suitable resource for a range of academic fields such as developmental studies, economics, ecology, and indigenous studies, and makes an invaluable training text for aspiring career counselors.


Gandhian work concepts Human development theories Indigenous models of career developement Indigenous models of vocational psychology Mahatma Gandhi Perspectives in career theory The Labor Market Theoretical perspectives for career development Theory development in career psychology career counseling career development in the 21st century career guidance career guidance centers career helplines educational inequality innovations in career counseling life-span theory social cognitive environments social justice special educational needs traditional occupations vocational psychology youth career construction

Editors and affiliations

  • Gideon Arulmani
    • 1
  • Anuradha J. Bakshi
    • 2
  • Frederick T. L. Leong
    • 3
  • A. G. Watts
    • 4
  1. 1.The Promise FoundationBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Human DevelopmentNirmala Niketan College of Home Science, University of MumbaiMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  4. 4.National Institute for Careers Education and CounsellingCambridgeUnited Kingdom

About the editors

Gideon Arulmani Ph.D., is a clinical psychologist with an M.Phil., in Medical and Social Psychology and a doctoral degree in Career Psychology from the University of Portsmouth, UK.  He is the Founder and Managing Trustee of The Promise Foundation, Bangalore, India.  His interests lie in the interdisciplinary understanding the human potential.  He has developed the Cultural Preparation Process Model of Career Development and formulated comprehensive culture-resonant systems of career counseling for India and other countries.  He has also developed curricula for capacity building at the certificate, masters, and doctoral levels.  He is the president of the Indian Association for Career and Livelihood Planning; a member of the Executive Board of International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance; an International Fellow of the Consortium for Multicultural Psychology Research, USA; an International Fellow of the National Institute for Education and Counselling, Cambridge, UK; Visiting Senior Lecturer at the University of Canterbury Christ Church, UK; Visiting Professor at the Martin Luther Christian University, Meghalaya; and international consultant to a number of multilateral agencies.  He is a reviewer and associate editor for a wide range of journals of psychology and counseling.  His other interests include documentary film making, photography, folklore, historical fiction, craft, jewelry design, and wine making!  email:

Anuradha J. Bakshi Ph.D., is an Associate Professor and Head of the Human Development Specialization at the Nirmala Niketan College of Home Science, University of Mumbai, India.  She is teaching in the B.S., M.S., and doctoral programs in Human Development.  She has been teaching at the university level for over 20 years, and has taught at multiple colleges and universities.  She also has extensive research experience, including coordination of national and international funded projects as well as research work with graduate students. She is the Vice President of the Indian Association for Career and Livelihood Planning, and a Managing Editor of the Indian Journal of Career and Livelihood Planning.  She is also an Associate Editor of the Research Reach: A Journal of Home Science.  She has been a Guest Editor of a special issue of the International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance.  She has been appointed to one of the Board of Studies at the University of Mumbai, and curriculum development is one of her special strengths.  Her specialty areas in teaching include research methods and statistics, and theories and models of human development.  She is especially drawn to the convergence and divergence between Western psychological and Indian philosophical and spiritual literatures.  She has been researching varied areas with her students, including spirituality, positive psychology, education, youth services, and career development.  Her recent publications are in the area of career development.  With higher educational qualifications from both India and the United States, she is particularly sensitive to cultural differences, and not just between two or more countries but also within a country.  As a resident of Mumbai, she is encouraged by the overall indomitable spirit of enterprise and agency in Mumbai.  email:

Dr. Frederick Leong, is Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry at Michigan State University.  He is also Director of the Consortium for Multicultural Psychology Research in the Department of Psychology.  He has authored or co-authored over 150 articles in various psychology journals, 100 book chapters, and also edited or co-edited 14 books.  He is Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Counseling (Sage Publications, 2008) and the APA Handbook for Multicultural Psychology (APA Books, 2013).  Dr. Leong is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (Divisions 1, 2, 5, 12, 17, 29, 45, 52), Association for Psychological Science, Asian American Psychological Association, and the International Academy for Intercultural Research.  His major research interests center around culture and mental health, cross-cultural psychotherapy, cultural and personality factors related to career choice and work adjustment.  email:

A. G. Watts, is an international policy consultant on career guidance and career development, based in Cambridge, England.  He is a Founding Fellow and Life President of the National Institute for Career Education and Counselling (NICEC); Visiting Professor of Career Development at the University of Derby; and Visiting Professor at Canterbury Christ Church University.  In addition to his extensive publications, Tony Watts has lectured in over sixty countries, and has carried out a number of comparative international studies of career guidance systems.  He has been a consultant to international organizations including the Council of Europe, the European Commission, OECD, UNESCO, and the World Bank.  In 2001/2 he worked at OECD on a 14-country Career Guidance Policy Review, subsequently extended through other bodies to cover 55 countries.  He is a consultant to the European Commission’s European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network, and a member of the Board of the International Centre for Career Development and Public Policy.  He was awarded an OBE in the 1994 Queen's Birthday Honours List for his services to education.  His passions include his family, cricket, and early music. email:

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“This is a wonderful compendium of information, ideas and suggestions for the practitioner, researcher or student. The 41 chapters offer a broad array of perspectives, research and references. Especially because several ideas are sourced from cultures other than the widely published US, the handbook will broaden horizons and challenge preconceived notions. I thank the editors and all of the authors for doing that for me.” (Dr. Jane Goodman, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, Vol. 43 (5), 2015)

“Handbook of career development: International perspectives comprises 41 chapters across a multitude of key themes including theoretical perspectives, assessment and evaluation, special populations, and counsellor competencies. The international team of contributors often share specific examples from their respective countries, bringing an important global perspective to topics of interest and concern. … Whether your primary interest is in theory, assessment, evaluation, or training, the Handbook of career development: International perspectives is a “must have” for anyone involved in career practice.” (Deirdre Pickerell, CCPA Career Counsellors Chapter,, March, 2014)