Gender Dysphoria and Disorders of Sex Development

Progress in Care and Knowledge

  • Baudewijntje P.C. Kreukels
  • Thomas D. Steensma
  • Annelou L.C. de Vries

Part of the Focus on Sexuality Research book series (FOSR)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxxii
  2. Developmental Principles

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Daniel Klink, Martin Den Heijer
      Pages 25-51
    3. Annelou L. C. de Vries, Baudewijntje P. C. Kreukels, Thomas D. Steensma, Jenifer K. McGuire
      Pages 53-80
  3. Disorders of Sex Development

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 81-81
    2. Birgit Köhler, Martina Jürgensen, Eva Kleinemeier, Ute Thyen
      Pages 115-134
  4. Gender Dysphoria

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 135-135
    2. Domenico Di Ceglie
      Pages 151-169
    3. Kenneth J. Zucker, Hayley Wood, Doug P. VanderLaan
      Pages 171-192
    4. Henriette A. Delemarre-van de Waal
      Pages 193-203
    5. Griet De Cuypere, Luk Gijs
      Pages 231-254
    6. Luk Gijs, Ellis van der Putten-Bierman, Griet De Cuypere
      Pages 255-276
    7. Stan J. Monstrey, Marlon Buncamper, Mark-Bram Bouman, Piet Hoebeke
      Pages 299-318
    8. Friedemann Pfäfflin
      Pages 331-346
  5. Back Matter
    Pages 347-357

About this book


 The formation of gender identity is a singularly complex part of an individual's development. When this process is further complicated by conflict between experienced gender and assigned gender or by medical conditions affecting sex development,lifetime consequenses can result. 

Gender Dysphoria and Disorders of Sex Development offers up-to-date understanding and interventions in one comprehensive volume featuring expert coverage of developmental trajectories, comorbid conditions, current medical and psychological treatments, and an instructive history of professional conceptualizations of gender dysphoria (GD) and disorders of sex development (DSD).

Introductory chapters analyze the roles of sex hormones and genetics in brain organization and introduce an integrative biopsychosocial model of gender development. A framework for age-appropriate treatment for children (including guidelines for working with infants), adolescents, and adults is the book's core. And as sex reassignment continues to prove a viable option for some individuals, the latest endocrine-based and surgical interventions for adults are discussed as well. Throughout, this groundbreaking reference work emphasizes empirical knowledge, compassion, a strong ethical base, and coordinated interdisciplinary care. Among the topics covered: 

  • Genetic aspects of gender identity development and gender dysphoria
  • Psychosexual development in individuals with disorders of sex development
  • Gender identity diagnoses: history and controversies
  • Early medical intervention in adolescents with gender dysphoria
  • Psychiatric comorbidity in adults with gender identity problems
  • The impact of stigma on transgender identity development and mental health 

For researchers and clinicians, including psychologists, psychiatrists, endocrinologists, and surgeons working in the field of GD and DSD, Gender Dysphoria and Disorders of Sex Development provides a unique view of the state of the field and recommendations for future research and care.


Endocrinological interventions Gender identity diagnoses Psychosexual development Sex differentiation Sex reassignment adolescents with gender dysphoria biopsychosocial perspectives disorders of sex development gender dysphoria gender dysphoric children gender identity development gender identity disorder intersex psychopathology in adolescents psychopathology in children psychosocial care of persons transgender identity development transsexualism treatment guidelines for GD and DSD

Editors and affiliations

  • Baudewijntje P.C. Kreukels
    • 1
  • Thomas D. Steensma
    • 2
  • Annelou L.C. de Vries
    • 3
  1. 1.Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Department of Medical PsychologyVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamNetherlands
  2. 2.Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Department of Medical PsychologyVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamNetherlands
  3. 3.Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Department of Child and Adolescent PsychVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamNetherlands

Bibliographic information