Craniofacial Muscles

A New Framework for Understanding the Effector Side of Craniofacial Muscle Control

  • Linda K. McLoon
  • Francisco Andrade

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-viii
  2. Overview

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Francisco H. Andrade, Linda K. McLoon
      Pages 3-7
  3. Development

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 9-9
    2. Itamar Harel, Eldad Tzahor
      Pages 11-28
  4. Extraocular Muscles

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 29-29
    2. Linda K. McLoon, Christy L. Willoughby, Francisco H. Andrade
      Pages 31-50
    3. Vallabh E. Das
      Pages 51-74
  5. Masticatory Muscles

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 89-89
    2. Mark Lewis, Nigel Hunt, Rishma Shah
      Pages 91-109
    3. Barry J. Sessle, Limor Avivi-Arber, Gregory M. Murray
      Pages 111-130
    4. Sadie L. Hebert, Christy L. Willoughby, Francisco H. Andrade, Linda K. McLoon
      Pages 131-138
  6. Laryngeal and Pharyngeal Muscles

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 139-139
    2. Lisa A. Vinney, Nadine P. Connor
      Pages 141-166
    3. J. C. Stemple, L. Fry, R. D. Andreatta
      Pages 185-203
  7. Tongue Musculature

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 205-205
    2. Alan Sokoloff, Thomas Burkholder
      Pages 207-227
    3. Mary Snyder Shall
      Pages 229-240
  8. Facial Muscles

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 263-263
    2. Adriaan O. Grobbelaar, Alex C. S. Woollard
      Pages 265-286
    3. Juwan Park, Andrew R. Harrison, Michael S. Lee
      Pages 287-321
  9. Summary and Conclusions

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 323-323
    2. Linda K. McLoon, Francisco H. Andrade
      Pages 325-335
  10. Back Matter
    Pages 337-345

About this book


Of the approximately 640 muscles in the human body, over 10% of them are found in the craniofacial region. The craniofacial muscles are involved in a number of crucial non-locomotor activities, and are critical to the most basic functions of life, including vision, taste, chewing and food manipulation, swallowing, respiration, speech, as well as regulating facial expression and controlling facial aperture patency. Despite their importance, the biology of these small skeletal muscles is relatively unexplored. Only recently have we begun to understand their unique embryonic development and the genes that control it and characteristic features that separate them from the skeletal muscle stereotype.

This book is the most comprehensive reference to date on craniofacial muscle development, structure, function, and disease. It details the state-of-the-art basic science of the craniofacial muscles, and describes their unique response to major neuromuscular conditions. Most importantly, the text highlights how the craniofacial muscles are different from most skeletal muscles, and why they have been viewed as a distinct allotype. In addition, the text points to major gaps in our knowledge about these very important skeletal muscles and identified key gaps in our knowledge and areas primed for further study and discovery.

Editors and affiliations

  • Linda K. McLoon
    • 1
  • Francisco Andrade
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. OphthalmologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Dept. PhysiologyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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