Ecology and Decline of Red Spruce in the Eastern United States

  • Christopher Eagar
  • Mary Beth Adams

Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 96)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xii
  2. Characterization of the Condition of Eastern U.S. Spruce-Fir Forests

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Peter S. White, Charles V. Cogbill
      Pages 3-39
    3. David R. Peart, N. S. Nicholas, Shepard M. Zedaker, Margaret M. Miller-Weeks, Thomas G. Siccama
      Pages 125-191
    4. Edward R. Cook, Shepard M. Zedaker
      Pages 192-231
  3. Air Pollution and Atmospheric Deposition Effects on Red Spruce: Evaluation of Mechanisms

  4. Why are Red Spruce Declining at High Elevations? A Synthesis of Epidemiological and Mechanistic Studies

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 383-383
    2. A. H. Johnson, S. B. McLaughlin, M. B. Adams, E. R. Cook, D. H. DeHayes, C. Eagar et al.
      Pages 385-411
  5. Back Matter
    Pages 413-417

About this book


In the early 1980s there were several published reports of recent, unexplained increases in mortality of red spruce in the Adirondack Mountains and the northern Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States. These reports coincided with documentation of reductions in radial growth of several species of pine in the southeastern United States, and with the severe, rapid, and widespread decline of Norway spruce, silver fir, and some hardwoods in central Europe. In all of these instances, atmospheric deposition was hypothesized as the cause of the decline. (Throughout this volume, we use the term "decline" to refer to a loosely synchronized regional-scale deterioration of tree health which is brought about by a combination of stress factors. These may be biotic or abiotic in nature, and the combinations may differ from site to site. ) Heated public debate about the causes and possible cures for these forest declines ensued. Through the course of this debate, it became clear that information about forest health and air pollution effects on forests was inadequate to meet policymakers' needs. Ecology and Decline of Red Spruce in the Eastern United States addresses that gap for eastern spruce­ fir forests and represents the culmination of a great deal of research conducted in recent years. The focus is on red spruce because the decline of red spruce was both dramatic and inexplicable and because of the great amount of information gathered on red spruce.


air pollution carbon development ecology environment forest pollutants pollution soil

Editors and affiliations

  • Christopher Eagar
    • 1
  • Mary Beth Adams
    • 2
  1. 1.Northeastern Forest Experiment StationUSDA Forest ServiceDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Timber and Watershed LaboratoryUSDA Forest ServiceParsonsUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag New York 1992
  • Publisher Name Springer, New York, NY
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-1-4612-7714-9
  • Online ISBN 978-1-4612-2906-3
  • Series Print ISSN 0070-8356
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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