© 2011

Nonelliptic Partial Differential Equations

Analytic Hypoellipticity and the Courage to Localize High Powers of T


  • The exposition is generous and relaxed, allowing the reader to come to terms to the technique at their own pace. The main difficulty, localization, is approached directly from the beginning with simple examples

  • Numerous applications are included

  • There is no similar book

  • There are other techniques for proving analytic hypoellipticity, but each has its own difficulties. While this is elementary but not simple, once the few basic formulas are established the rest is combinatorial in nature, and not conceptually difficult


Part of the Developments in Mathematics book series (DEVM, volume 22)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-viii
  2. David S. Tartakoff
    Pages 1-3
  3. David S. Tartakoff
    Pages 5-6
  4. David S. Tartakoff
    Pages 7-32
  5. David S. Tartakoff
    Pages 33-39
  6. David S. Tartakoff
    Pages 41-64
  7. David S. Tartakoff
    Pages 65-70
  8. David S. Tartakoff
    Pages 71-79
  9. David S. Tartakoff
    Pages 91-98
  10. David S. Tartakoff
    Pages 99-130
  11. David S. Tartakoff
    Pages 153-157
  12. David S. Tartakoff
    Pages 159-189
  13. David S. Tartakoff
    Pages 191-193
  14. David S. Tartakoff
    Pages 195-198
  15. Back Matter
    Pages 199-203

About this book


This book fills a real gap in the analytical literature. After many years and many results of analytic regularity for partial differential equations, the only access to the technique known as $(T^p)_\phi$ has remained embedded in the research papers themselves, making it difficult for a graduate student or a mature mathematician in another discipline to master the technique and use it to advantage. This monograph takes a particularly non-specialist approach, one might even say gentle, to smoothly bring the reader into the heart of the technique and its power, and ultimately to show many of the results it has been instrumental in proving. Another technique developed simultaneously by F. Treves is developed and compared and contrasted to ours.


The techniques developed here are tailored to proving real analytic regularity to solutions of sums of squares of vector fields with symplectic characteristic variety and others, real and complex. The motivation came from the field of several complex variables and the seminal work of J. J. Kohn. It has found application in non-degenerate (strictly pseudo-convex) and degenerate situations alike, linear and non-linear, partial and pseudo-differential equations, real and complex analysis. The technique is utterly elementary, involving powers of vector fields and carefully chosen localizing functions. No knowledge of advanced techniques, such as the FBI transform or the theory of hyperfunctions is required. In fact analyticity is proved using only $C^\infty$ techniques.


The book is intended for mathematicians from graduate students up, whether in analysis or not, who are curious which non-elliptic partial differential operators have the property that all solutions must be real analytic. Enough background is provided to prepare the reader with it for a clear understanding of the text, although this is not, and does not need to be, very extensive. In fact, it is very nearly true that if the reader is willing to accept the fact that pointwise bounds on the derivatives of a function are equivalent to bounds on the $L^2$ norms of its derivatives locally, the book should read easily.


analytic hypoelllipticity complex analysis localization partial differential equations

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.ChicagoUSA

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Nonelliptic Partial Differential Equations
  • Book Subtitle Analytic Hypoellipticity and the Courage to Localize High Powers of T
  • Authors David S. Tartakoff
  • Series Title Developments in Mathematics
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011
  • Publisher Name Springer, New York, NY
  • eBook Packages Mathematics and Statistics Mathematics and Statistics (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-1-4419-9812-5
  • Softcover ISBN 978-1-4614-2969-2
  • eBook ISBN 978-1-4419-9813-2
  • Series ISSN 1389-2177
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages VIII, 203
  • Number of Illustrations 0 b/w illustrations, 0 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Partial Differential Equations
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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From the reviews:

“The present book deals with the analytic and Gevrey local hypoellipticity of certain nonelliptic partial differential operators. … this nice book is mostly addressed to Ph.D. students and researchers in harmonic analysis and partial differential equations, the reader being supposed to be familiar with the basic facts of pseudodifferential calculus and several complex variables. It represents the first presentation, in book form, of the challenging and still open problem of analytic and Gevrey hypoellipticity of sum-of-squares operators.” (Fabio Nicola, Mathematical Reviews, Issue 2012 h)