The Order Has Been Carried Out

History, Memory, and Meaning of a Nazi Massacre in Rome

  • Authors
  • Alessandro┬áPortelli

Part of the Palgrave Studies in Oral History book series (PSOH)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xv
  2. Introduction

    1. Alessandro Portelli
      Pages 1-20
  3. Rome

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 21-21
    2. Alessandro Portelli
      Pages 23-50
    3. Alessandro Portelli
      Pages 51-69
    4. Alessandro Portelli
      Pages 71-93
  4. The Fosse Ardeatine

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 95-95
    2. Alessandro Portelli
      Pages 97-132
    3. Alessandro Portelli
      Pages 133-171
    4. Alessandro Portelli
      Pages 173-199
  5. Memory

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 201-201
    2. Alessandro Portelli
      Pages 203-229
    3. Alessandro Portelli
      Pages 231-276
    4. Alessandro Portelli
      Pages 277-300
  6. Back Matter
    Pages 301-329

About this book


On March 24, 1944, Nazi occupation forces in Rome killed 335 unarmed civilians in retaliation for a partisan attack the day before. Portelli has crafted an eloquent, multi-voiced oral history of the massacre, of its background and its aftermath. The moving stories of the victims, the women and children who survived and carried on, the partisans who fought the Nazis, and the common people who lived through the tragedies of the war together paint a many-hued portrait of one of the world's most richly historical cities. The Order Has Been Carried Out powerfully relates the struggles for freedom under Fascism and Nazism, the battles for memory in post-war democracy, and the meanings of death and grief in modern society.


democracy fascism history war

Bibliographic information