Legitimacy In European Nature Conservation Policy

Case Studies In Multilevel Governance

  • Jozef Keulartz
  • Gilbert Leistra

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XV
  2. Introduction

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Ewald Engelen, Jozef Keulartz, Gilbert Leistra
      Pages 3-21
  3. Protected Species

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 23-23
    2. Gilbert Leistra, Jozef Keulartz, Ewald Engelen
      Pages 25-45
    3. Wim Dubbink
      Pages 47-53
    4. Felix Rauschmayer, Vivien Behrens
      Pages 55-74
  4. Protected Areas

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 81-81
    2. Susana Aguilar Fernández
      Pages 83-100
    3. Tadeusz J. Chmielewski, Jaroslaw Krogulec
      Pages 137-147
    4. Henny van der Windt
      Pages 149-157
    5. Elizabeth Oughton, Jane Wheelock
      Pages 159-176
    6. Marielle van der Zouwen
      Pages 177-181
  5. Countries

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 183-183
    2. Dirk Bogaert, Pieter Leroy
      Pages 185-204
    3. Erik van Zadelhoff
      Pages 205-207
    4. Henk van den Belt
      Pages 227-230
    5. Michiel Korthals
      Pages 251-255
  6. Conclusions

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 257-257
    2. Rüdiger K. W. Wurzel
      Pages 259-282

About this book


This volume focuses on the issue of legitimacy in the context of European nature conservation policy. It provides insights in the way in which democratic legitimacy is being ‘produced’ at different levels of governance. Building forth upon recent developments in democracy theory that have identified multiple forms of legitimacy, the volume observes a EU-wide shift from output legitimacy to input and throughput legitimacy. Top down policy making is increasingly meeting

local resistance. As a result, the importance for policy makers of enhancing the democratic legitimacy of their policy plans has increased. The popularity of deliberative decision-making procedures can be seen as a procedural answer to this state of affairs.

For this volume scholars from within the EU were invited to reflect upon the question whether similar developments are taking place in the context with which they are most familiar. Do they perceive a delegitimation of top down policy making and hence an increasing emphasis on procedural legitimacy in processes of nature conservation policy implementation? Which model of democratic decision-making is most helpful to solve the issue of legitimacy in the field of nature conservation policy? How important are national traditions and institutions? What are the tradeoffs between the different types of legitimacy?

Nine case studies are presented: two case studies on protected species (geese in the Netherlands, and the great cormorant in Denmark, France and Italy), four case studies that zoom in on specific protected areas (in Spain, Finland, Poland and the UK), and three case studies with a focus on the implementation of Natura 2000 at the country level (Belgium, France and Germany). These case studies are followed by extensive comments.


European policy biodiversity biosphere environment interactive policy-making multilevel governance nature conservation politics

Editors and affiliations

  • Jozef Keulartz
    • 1
  • Gilbert Leistra
    • 1
  1. 1.Wageningen UniversityThe Netherlands

Bibliographic information