© 2007

Lead-Free Electronic Solders

A Special Issue of the Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics


Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-2
  2. H. Ipser, H. Flandorfer, Ch. Luef, C. Schmetterer, U. Saeed
    Pages 3-17
  3. Sinn-Wen Chen, Chao-Hong Wang, Shih-Kang Lin, Chen-Nan Chiu
    Pages 19-37
  4. C. M. L. Wu, Y. W. Wong
    Pages 77-91
  5. Paul T. Vianco, Jerome A. Rejent, Arlo F. Fossum, Michael K. Neilsen
    Pages 93-119
  6. Katsuaki. Suganuma, Kuen-Soo. Kim
    Pages 121-127
  7. C. E. Ho, S. C. Yang, C. R. Kao
    Pages 155-174
  8. Fuqian Yang, J. C. M. Li
    Pages 191-210
  9. J. K. Shang, Q. L. Zeng, L. Zhang, Q. S. Zhu
    Pages 211-227
  10. Michael Osterman, Abhijit Dasgupta
    Pages 229-236
  11. Seung-Hyun Chae, Xuefeng Zhang, Kuan-Hsun Lu, Huang-Lin Chao, Paul S. Ho, Min Ding et al.
    Pages 247-258
  12. Chih Chen, S. W. Liang
    Pages 259-268
  13. K. N. Tu, Chih Chen, Albert T. Wu
    Pages 269-281
  14. J. W. Osenbach, J. M. DeLucca, B. D. Potteiger, A. Amin, F. A. Baiocchi
    Pages 283-305

About this book


In the last few decades the effect of lead contamination on human health has received significant attention. Based on such concerns, elimination of lead from ceramic glaze, paint, plumbing etc. has been legislated and implemented. However, until recently, solders used in electronics, based on suitability and knowledge-base developed over a long period of time, remained lead-based. Successive rapid advances in microelectronic devices in recent decades make them obsolete within a very short period after their introduction resulting in significant quantities of electronic wastes in landfills. Leaching of toxic lead from such electronic wastes can result in contamination of the human food chain causing serious health hazards. As a consequence, several European and Pacific Rim countries have passed legislations warranting elimination of lead from electronic solders by fast approaching deadlines. Global economic pressures brought on by such legislations have resulted in a flurry of research activities to find suitable lead-free substitutes for the traditional leaded electronic solders.

The worldwide multi-faceted research efforts to arrive at suitable solutions, especially as the deadline for implementation of lead-free electronic solders approaches, have resulted in an exhaustive number of research papers in several reviewed scientific journals. Similarly there have been presentations in several national and international meetings of various technical societies. It is impossible for any researcher or student to be aware of all the materials that have been, and are being, published in this area. So it becomes essential to have most of the relevant and currently available information in a single source.

With this goal in mind, the important issues that are encountered in the lead-free electronic solder area were identified, and researchers recognized for their significant scientific contributions in those areas, were invited to write articles on those topics. They were asked to address the importance of a given issue, the current status of understanding and available solutions, the problems that still need to be tackled and suggestions for potential approaches to do so.

This book contains the papers that were invited for a special issue of Journal of Electronic Materials: Materials in Electronics.  Because this journal may not be a regular source of scientific information for academic researchers in fields other than Materials Science and those in industry, and to provide wider awareness of the current status of lead-free electronic solders to those persons active in the area but who are not regular readers of the Journal,  these articles have been reprinted in this book.


Hardware development electronics lead-free solders mechanical engineering metal microelectronics packaging modeling safety solder joint reliability

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering & Materials ScienceMichigan State UniversityEast Lansing

Bibliographic information

Industry Sectors
Chemical Manufacturing
Consumer Packaged Goods
Materials & Steel
Energy, Utilities & Environment
Oil, Gas & Geosciences


From the reviews:

"The main part of the text is devoted to soldering materials with all the most common alloys illustrated and supported with mechanical data and phase diagrams. … there is a lot of real value on the informative to research and process engineers who want to go deeper into the subject." (Bob Willis, Electronics Production World, August, 2007)