Frequency Measurement and Control

Advanced Techniques and Future Trends

  • Andre N. Luiten

Part of the Topics in Applied Physics book series (TAP, volume 79)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XIV
  2. Introduction

    1. Andre N. Luiten
      Pages 1-3
  3. Low-Noise and Ultrastable Secondary Frequency Standards

  4. Laser-Cooled Atom and Trapped-Ion Frequency Standards

    1. Fritz Riehle, Jürgen Helmcke
      Pages 95-129
    2. Pierre Lemonde, Philippe Laurent, Giorgio Santarelli, Michel Abgrall, Yvan Sortais, Sébastien Bize et al.
      Pages 131-153
    3. John D. Prestage, Robert L. Tjoelker, Lute Maleki
      Pages 195-211
  5. Conventional Optical Frequency Measurement and Mid-Infrared Frequency Standards

    1. Carl O. Weiss, G. Kramer, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz
      Pages 215-247
  6. Advanced Optical Frequency Measurement and Synthesis

    1. Thomas Udem, Jörg Reichert, Ronald Holzwarth, Markus Niering, Martin Weitz, Theodor W. Hänsch
      Pages 275-294
    2. Motonobu Kourogi, Kazuhiro Imai, Bambang Widiyatmoko, Motoichi Ohtsu
      Pages 315-335
    3. Andre N. Luiten
      Pages 337-387
  7. Back Matter
    Pages 389-394

About this book


Optical frequency measurement is an extremely challenging field of experimental physics that is presently undergoing a renaissance of interest and endeavour. The motivation for this rebirth comes from two diverse fronts: the very practical needs of modern high-throughput optical communication systems, and from the more esoteric requirements of high-resolution laser spectroscopy. The inherent challenge of the field arises from the desire for accuracy in the measurement. This requirement demands that the optical measurement be made with reference to the internationally agreed defintion of frequency: a microwave transition in the cesium atom. In the past, a small number of laboratories had succeeded in providing this bridge between the microwave and optical domains in an outstanding feat of ingenuity, overcoming the limits of technology. A much more elegant and simple approach has now become possible using developments in nonlinear optics and femtosecond mode-locked lasers. Application of this modern approach should lead to a new era in which optical frequency measurements become commonplace. This text is the first to discuss, in detail, the development of traditional and second-generation frequency chains together with their enabling technology. Reviews written by some of the most experienced researchers in their respective fields address the technology of frequency metrology, including low-noise and high-stability microwave and optical frequency standards, traditional and second-generation optical frequency measurement and synthesis techniques, and optical frequency comb generators. This text should prove useful to researchers just entering the field of optical frequency metrology or equally well to the experienced practitioner.


Atom clocks Frequency Measurement Metrology Optical Standards Synthesis atom development experiment experimental physics laser laser spectroscopy metrology microwave molecule optical communication physics research spectroscopy stability technology

Editors and affiliations

  • Andre N. Luiten
    • 1
  1. 1.Physics DepartmentUniversity of Western AustraliaNedlandsAustralia

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-3-540-67694-2
  • Online ISBN 978-3-540-44991-1
  • Series Print ISSN 0303-4216
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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