© 2006

Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics

  • Anthony Krier


  • Provides the reader with a complete survey of the properties of mid-infrared optoelectronic sources and sensors

  • Advances the creation of practical devices for the detection of various pollutant gases as well as narcotics and for infrared communications equipment


Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 118)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xviii
  2. Materials and Device Design Considerations

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. B. N. Murdin, A. R. Adams, S. J. Sweeney
      Pages 93-127
  3. Lasers

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 129-129
    2. M. Rattunde, J. Schmitz, C. Mermelstein, R. Kiefer, J. Wagner
      Pages 131-157
    3. F. Genty, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti
      Pages 159-188
    4. I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, J. R. Lindle, M. Kim et al.
      Pages 189-217
    5. K. D. Moiseev, Y. P. Yakovlev
      Pages 219-236
    6. R. Kaspi, G. C. Dente, A. P. Ongstad
      Pages 303-322
    7. J. Cockburn
      Pages 323-355
  4. LEDs and Detectors

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 357-357
    2. A. Krier, X. L. Huang, V. V. Sherstnev
      Pages 359-394
    3. Boris A. Matveev
      Pages 395-428
    4. S. Haywood, K. T. Lai, M. Missous
      Pages 429-452
    5. T. Ashley, G. R. Nash
      Pages 453-485
    6. P. Bhattacharya, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, S. Chakrabarti
      Pages 487-513

About this book


The practical realisation of optoelectronic devices operating in the 2–10 µm (mid-infrared) wavelength range offers potential applications in a variety of areas from environmental gas monitoring around oil rigs and landfill sites to the detection of pharmaceuticals, particularly narcotics. In addition, an atmospheric transmission window exists between 3 µm and 5 µm that enables free-space optical communications, thermal imaging applications and the development of infrared measures for "homeland security". Consequently, the mid-infrared is very attractive for the development of sensitive optical sensor instrumentation.

Unfortunately, the nature of the likely applications dictates stringent requirements in terms of laser operation, miniaturisation and cost that are difficult to meet. Many of the necessary improvements are linked to a better ability to fabricate and to understand the optoelectronic properties of suitable high-quality epitaxial materials and device structures. Substantial progress in these matters is presented here.

Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics is an overview of the current status and technological development in this rapidly emerging area. It is composed of four parts. First, the basic physics and some of the main problems facing the design engineer (together with a comparison of possible solutions) are laid out. Next, there is a consideration of the multifarious lasers used as sources for mid-infrared technology, including an inspection of current approaches to the lack of such a source in the 3–4 µm region. Part III reviews recent work in light-emitting diodes and detectors and also deals with negative luminescence. The final part of the book is concerned with applications and highlights, once more, the diversity and technological importance of the mid-infrared spectral region.

With a world-wide authorship of experts working in a number of different mid-infrared-related fields Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics will be an invaluable reference for researchers and graduate students drawn from backgrounds in physics, electronic and electrical engineering and materials science. Its breadth and thoroughness also make it an excellent starting point for further research and investigation.


Absorption Condensed Matter Diode Lasers LED Light-emitting Diode Mid-infrared Optoelectronics Photodetectors Photodiode Transmission Vakuuminjektionsverfahren electrical engineering quantum cascade laser quantum dot semiconductor

Editors and affiliations

  • Anthony Krier
    • 1
  1. 1.Physics DepartmentLancaster UniversityLancasterUK

About the editors

Professor Anthony Krier is the head of the Condensed Matter Division of the Physics Department at Lancaster University, UK. His research is in the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor and polymer materials and the fabrication of diode and laser devices emitting in the 2–10 µm (mid-infrared) range. He is the co-ordinator of the Mid-infrared Network. This EPSRC (UK’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) network has been created to bring together expertise and facilitate research in key areas of semiconductor materials growth, device physics and fabrication in order to advance the technology of mid-infrared optoelectronics. The network links centres of excellence throughout the UK and Europe. This book represents a collaboration between many of these labs which has been substantially supplemented (nearly 50% of the text) by contributions from leading American researchers in this field.

Bibliographic information

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