Precisely Predictable Dirac Observables

  • Heinz Otto Cordes

Part of the Fundamental Theories of Physics book series (FTPH, volume 154)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XIX
  2. Heinz Otto Cordes
    Pages 1-35
  3. Heinz Otto Cordes
    Pages 37-53
  4. Heinz Otto Cordes
    Pages 55-81
  5. Heinz Otto Cordes
    Pages 117-148
  6. Heinz Otto Cordes
    Pages 149-191
  7. Heinz Otto Cordes
    Pages 237-257
  8. Back Matter
    Pages 259-275

About this book


This work presents a "Clean Quantum Theory of the Electron", based on Dirac’s equation. "Clean" in the sense of a complete mathematical explanation of the well known paradoxes of Dirac’s theory, and a connection to classical theory, including the motion of a magnetic moment (spin) in the given field, all for a charged particle (of spin ½) moving in a given electromagnetic field.
This theory is relativistically covariant, and it may be regarded as a mathematically consistent quantum-mechanical generalization of the classical motion of such a particle, à la Newton and Einstein. Normally, our fields are time-independent, but also discussed is the time-dependent case, where slightly different features prevail. A "Schroedinger particle", such as a light quantum, experiences a very different (time-dependent) "Precise Predictablity of Observables". An attempt is made to compare both cases. There is not the Heisenberg uncertainty of location and momentum; rather, location alone possesses a built-in uncertainty of measurement.
Mathematically, our tools consist of the study of a pseudo-differential operator (i.e. an "observable") under conjugation with the Dirac propagator: such an operator has a "symbol" approximately propagating along classical orbits, while taking its "spin" along. This is correct only if the operator is "precisely predictable", that is, it must approximately commute with the Dirac Hamiltonian, and, in a sense, will preserve the subspaces of electronic and positronic states of the underlying Hilbert space.

Theoretical Physicists, specifically in Quantum Mechanics.
Mathematicians, in the fields of Analysis, Spectral Theory of Self-adjoint differential operators, and Elementary Theory of Pseudo-Differential Operators


Albert Einstein Foldy-Wouthuysen Heisenberg Potential Pseudodifferential Schrödinger equations Sobolev and Hilbert spaces

Authors and affiliations

  • Heinz Otto Cordes
    • 1
  1. 1.Professor Emeritus, Department of MathematicsUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyU.S.A.

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