© 2006

National Systems of Innovation in Comparison

Structure and Performance Indicators for Knowledge Societies

  • Ulrich Schmoch
  • Christian Rammer
  • Harald Legler


  • Evidence-based support for innovation and technology policy

  • Excellent support for the selection and interpretation of appropriate innovation indicators

  • Unique consistent comparison of various national systems of innovation

  • Unique compilation of a broad set of innovation indicators

  • Relevant conclusions for innovation policy in the context of globalisation


Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-vii
  2. Introduction and Summary

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Harald Legler, Christian Rammer, Ulrich Schmoch
      Pages 3-14
  3. The Origin of Knowledge: Research and Development

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 15-15
    2. Harald Legler, Christian Rammer, Christoph Grenzmann
      Pages 17-30
    3. Harald Legler, Olaf Krawczyk
      Pages 31-45
    4. Heike Belitz, Jakob Edler, Christoph Grenzmann
      Pages 47-66
  4. Performance Indicators of NSI

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 67-67
    2. Christian Rammer
      Pages 107-132
  5. Structural Change and Performance of the NSI

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 133-133
    2. Dieter Schumacher
      Pages 135-151
    3. Christian Rammer
      Pages 153-167
  6. Education as a Base for NSI

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 185-185
    2. Alexandra Uhly, Klaus Troltsch, Günter Walden
      Pages 205-225
    3. Jürgen Egeln, Christoph Heine
      Pages 227-243

About this book


The concept of National Systems of Innovation was introduced as a method to describe the various elements which contribute to innovation performance and their interaction. Most analyses refer to the description of the structures of specific countries, whereas the comparison of different countries generally fails due to the inconsistency of information sources or the lack of specific data. In this book, the innovation structures of a broad set of countries are compared on the basis of various indicators. In particular, the topics of public and private R&D and their internationalisation, of scientific and technological performance, of innovation activities in manufacturing and services, of foreign trade, of technology-based start-ups, and ICT infrastructure are examined in detail. A further relevant area of investigation is higher education and highly skilled employment, and finally trends in innovation policy are presented in an international comparison. The book documents major elements of the joint work of eight leading German institutes, elaborated in the context of a regular annual report on Germany's technological performance. It provides much more than the pure compilation of quantitative indicators for international benchmarking, but gives support to an appropriate interpretation of the referring results and suggests relevant conclusions for innovation policy. A special focus is on Germany; so the book also aims at non-German readers interested in specific features of the German innovation system.


Europe Forschung & Entwicklung Globalisation of research Higher education Innovation Innovation indicators Innovation policy Performance Technological performance and international competition Text education technology

Editors and affiliations

  • Ulrich Schmoch
    • 1
  • Christian Rammer
    • 2
  • Harald Legler
    • 3
  1. 1.Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation ResearchGermany
  2. 2.Centre for European Economic ResearchGermany
  3. 3.Lower Saxony Institute for Economic Research (NIW)Germany

Bibliographic information

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