Advertisement

Laboratory Animal Research

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 166–173 | Cite as

Comparative analysis of growth characteristics of Sprague Dawley rats obtained from different sources

  • Marcia Brower
  • Martha Grace
  • Catherine M. Kotz
  • Vijay KoyaEmail author
Open Access
Article

Abstract

Genetic background in animal models is an intrinsic research variable in biomedical research. Although inbred strains offer genetic uniformity, the outbred stocks, known for genetic variability are often used to develop animal models of human disease. The genetic variability is considered to be even higher when outbred stocks are obtained from different sources. In order to examine the degree of variability of an outbred stock obtained from various sources, Sprague Dawley (SD) rat lines obtained from two sources were evaluated for their growth characteristics. The SD rats from Charles River laboratories (CRL) and Harlan Laboratories (HAR) were monitored for weight gain from the age of 6 weeks to 24 weeks. Food intake was monitored between 13 and 24 weeks. Body composition, organ weights, tibial lengths and blood parameters were measured. There was no difference observed in food intake per 100 gram body weight at most of the time points. CRL rats showed higher body fat mass (49.6%), higher gross liver weights (22.2%), lower testicular weights (30.8%) and lower cholesterol levels (25.4%) than HAR rats. Phenotypic differences may be attributed to genetic heterogeneity of the SD outbred stock between the two sources and represent a significant research variable impacting studies especially related to metabolic diseases. Therefore, in order the minimize research variables for those studies where genetic diversity is not a basis for experimental design, the use of single source genetically uniform inbred animal models is highly recommended over the use of outbred stocks.

Keywords

Sprague Dawley genetics outbreds phenotype 

References

  1. 1.
    Benson VL, McMahon AC, Lowe HC, Khachigian LM. The streptozotocin-treated Sprague-Dawley rat: a useful model for the assessment of acute and chronic effects of myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury in experimental diabetes. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2007; 4(2): 2–153.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chia R, Achilli F, Festing MF, Fisher EM. The origins and uses of mouse outbred stocks. Nat Genet 2005; 37(11): 11–1181.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ciccotosto GD, Hand TA, Mains RE, Eipper BA. Breeding stock-specific variation in peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase messenger ribonucleic acid splicing in rat pituitary. Endocrinology 2000; 141(2): 2–476.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Crous-Bou M, Rennert G, Salazar R, Rodriguez-Moranta F, Rennert HS, Lejbkowicz F, Kopelovich L, Lipkin SM, Gruber SB, Moreno V. Genetic polymorphisms in fatty acid metabolism genes and colorectal cancer. Mutagenesis 2012; 27(2): 2–169.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Davidson EP, Coppey LJ, Calcutt NA, Oltman CL, Yorek MA. Diet-induced obesity in Sprague-Dawley rats causes microvascular and neural dysfunction. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2010; 26(4): 4–306.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Festing MF. Reduction in animal use in the production and testing of biologicals. Dev Biol Stand 1999; 101: 195–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW. Laboratory Animal Medicine.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gear RB, Yan M, Schneider J, Succop P, Heffelfinger SC, Clegg DJ. Charles River Sprague Dawley rats lack early age-dependent susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Int J Biol Sci 2007; 3(7): 7–408.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heikkila RE. Differential neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in Swiss-Webster mice from different sources. Eur J Pharmacol 1985; 117(1): 1–131.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hubrecht RC, Kirkwood J. The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory and Other Research Animals, 8th ed. Wiley-Blackwell. 2010.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Klocke R, Tian W, Kuhlmann MT, Nikol S. Surgical animal models of heart failure related to coronary heart disease. Cardiovasc Res 2007; 74(1): 1–29.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Levin BE, Dunn-Meynell AA, Balkan B, Keesey RE. Selective breeding for diet-induced obesity and resistance in Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Physiol 1997; 273: R725–R730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu YH, Yang XP, Nass O, Sabbah HN, Peterson E, Carretero OA. Chronic heart failure induced by coronary artery ligation in Lewis inbred rats. Am J Physiol 1997; 272: H722–H727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Masternak MM, Bartke A, Wang F, Spong A, Gesing A, Fang Y, Salmon AB, Hughes LF, Liberati T, Boparai R, Kopchick JJ, Westbrook R. Metabolic effects of intra-abdominal fat in GHRKO mice. Aging Cell 2012; 11(1): 1–73.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Naaijkens BA, van Dijk A, Meinster E, Kramer K, Kamp O, Krijnen PA, Niessen HW, Juffermans LJ. Wistar rats from different suppliers have a different response in an acute myocardial infarction model. Res Vet Sci 2014; 96(2): 2–377.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nixon JP, Zhang M, Wang C, Kuskowski MA, Novak CM, Levine JA, Billington CJ, Kotz CM. Evaluation of a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging system for whole body composition analysis in rodents. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010; 18(8): 8–1652.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ohman MK, Wright AP, Wickenheiser KJ, Luo W, Eitzman DT. Visceral adipose tissue and atherosclerosis. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2009; 7(2): 2–169.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Prieto-Hontoria PL, Perez-Matute P, Fernandez-Galilea M, Bustos M, Martinez JA, Moreno-Aliaga MJ. Role of obesity-associated dysfunctional adipose tissue in cancer: a molecular nutrition approach. Biochim Biophys Acta 2011; 1807(6): 6–664.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Roomi MW, Roomi NW, Ivanov V, Kalinovsky T, Niedzwiecki A, Rath M. Modulation of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced mammary tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats by combination of lysine, proline, arginine, ascorbic acid and green tea extract. Breast Cancer Res 2005; 7(3): R291–R295.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shpilberg Y, Beaudry JL, D’Souza A, Campbell JE, Peckett A, Riddell MC. A rodent model of rapid-onset diabetes induced by glucocorticoids and high-fat feeding. Dis Model Mech 2012; 5(5): 5–671.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vallender EJ, Miller GM. Nonhuman primate models in the genomic era: a paradigm shift. ILAR J 2013; 54(2): 2–154.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    White WJ, Lee CS. The Development and Maintenance of the Crl:CD(SD) IGS BR Rat Breeding System. CD (SD) IGS Charles River Laboratories Publications. 1998; pp 8–14.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang F, Ye C, Li G, Ding W, Zhou W, Zhu H, Chen G, Luo T, Guang M, Liu Y, Zhang D, Zheng S, Yang J, Gu Y, Xie X, Luo M. The rat model of type 2 diabetic mellitus and its glycometabolism characters. Exp Anim 2003; 52(5): 5–401.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© BioMed Central Ltd 2015

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcia Brower
    • 1
  • Martha Grace
    • 2
  • Catherine M. Kotz
    • 2
  • Vijay Koya
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Boston Scientific CorporationSt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Minnesota Obesity CenterMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations