Advertisement

Behavior and Social Issues

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 113–128 | Cite as

Stimulus Equivalence and Social Categorization in Northern Ireland

  • Attracta McGlinchey
  • Michael Keenan
Article

Abstract

Subjects of this study were Catholics and Protestants from Northern Ireland. They included six adults and thirty children; the children were aged between five years and twelve years. Using a mixture of arbitrary and socially loaded stimuli, subjects were taught four conditional discriminations. They were taught firstly to select stimulus BI (arbitrary stimulus) in the presence of A1 (Protestant stimulus) and to select stimulus B2 (arbitrary stimulus) in the presence of stimulus A2 (Catholic stimulus). They were trained then to select stimulus Cl (Catholic stimulus) in the presence of BI and to select stimulus C2 (Protestant stimulus) in the presence of B2. An equivalence test was administered subsequently to determine whether these Protestant and Catholic symbols had become related through symmetry and transitivity. Additional tests were administered using arbitrary and nonarbitrary novel stimuli to determine if socially learned relations would compete with the emergence of equivalence relations. Findings suggest that prior social learning can result in equivalence responding not occurring in the testing phase.

Key words

social behavior social categorization stimulus equivalence children Northern Ireland 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barritt, D. P., & Carter, C. F. (1972). The Northern Ireland problem. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Barnes, D. (1994). Stimulus equivalence and relational frame theory. The Psychological Record, 44, 91–124.Google Scholar
  3. Barnes, D., & Holmes, Y. (1991). Radical behaviorism, stimulus equivalence and human cognition. The Psychological Record, 41, 19–3I.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Billig, M. (1976). Social psychology and intergroup relations. European Monographs in Social Psychology, No. 9, London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Burton, F. (1978). The politics of legitimacy. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  6. Cairns, E. (1980). The development of ethnic discrimination in young children in Northern Ireland. In J. Harbison and J. Harbison (Eds.). Children and young people in a society under stress. London: Open Books.Google Scholar
  7. Cairns, E. (1982). Intergroup conflict in Northern Ireland. In H. Tajfel (Ed.). Social identity and intergroup relations. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Cairns, E. (1987). Caught in crossfire: Children and the Northern Ireland conflict. Belfast, Northern Ireland: Appletree Press.Google Scholar
  9. Cairns, E. & Mercer, G. W. (1978). Adolescent social identity in Northern Ireland: The importance of denominational identity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New University of Ulster.Google Scholar
  10. Catania, A. C. (1984). Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  11. Devany, J. M., Hayes, S. C., & Nelson, R. O. (1986). Equivalence class formation in language-able and language-disabled children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 46, 243–257.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1986.46-243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Easthope, G. (1976). Religious war in Northern Ireland. Sociology, 10 (3), 427–450.  https://doi.org/10.1177/003803857601000303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Epstein, A. L. (1978). Ethos and identity. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  14. Fields, L., Adams, B. J., Verhave, T., & Newman, S. (1990). The effects of nodality on the formation of equivalence classes. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 53, 345–358.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1990.53-345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gamble, R. (1982). A critical and experimental study of colour preference. Americal Journal of Psychology, 54, 385–394.Google Scholar
  16. Grant, L., & Evans, A. (1994). Principles of behavior analysis. Harper Collins College Publishers.Google Scholar
  17. Grey, I. M., & Barnes, D. (1996). Stimulus equivalence and attitudes. The Psychological Record, 46, 243–270.Google Scholar
  18. Hayes, S. C. (1991). A relational control theory of stimulus equivalence. In L. J. Hayes & P. N. Chase (Eds.), Dialogues on verbal behavior: The first international institute on verbal relations. Reno, NV: Context Press.Google Scholar
  19. Hayes, S. C. (1992). Verbal relations, time and suicide. In S. C. Hayes & L. J. Hayes (Eds.), Understanding verbal relations. Reno, NV: Context Press.Google Scholar
  20. Leslie, I. C., Tierney, K. I., Robinson, P., Keenan, M., Watt, A., & Barnes, D. (1993). Differences between clinically anxious and nonanxious subjects in a stimulus equivalence training task involving threat words. The Psychological Record, 43, 153–16I.Google Scholar
  21. LeVine, R. A., & Campbell, D. T. (1972). Ethnocentrism: Theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes and group behavior. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. McGlinchey, A., Dillenburger, K., & Keenan, M. (1997). Child sexual abuse and stimulus equivalence--preliminary research into the development of a covert screening procedure. Paper presented at the third meeting of EMEAB, Dublin.Google Scholar
  23. McWhirter, L. (1982). Northern Irish children’s conceptions of crime. The Howard Journal, 21, 167–177.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-231I.1982.tb00462.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McWhirter, L. (1983). Contact and conflict: The question of integrated education. Irish Journal of Psychology, 6, 13–27.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03033910.1983.10557654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McWhirter, L., & Gamble, R. (1982). Development of ethnic awareness in the absence of physical cues. Irish Journal of Psychology, 5, 109–127.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03033910.1982.10557650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moore, R. (1972). Race relations in the Six Counties: Colonialism, industrialization and stratification in Ireland. Race, 14, 21–42.  https://doi.org/10.1177/030639687201400103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moxon, P., Keenan, M., & Hine, L. (1993). Gender-role stereotyping and stimulus equivalence. The Psychological Record, 43, 381–394.Google Scholar
  28. Reese, H. W. (1991). Mentalistic approaches to verbal behavior. In L. J. Hayes & P. N. Chase (Eds.), Dialogues on verbal behavior (pp. 151–177). Reno, NV: Context Press.Google Scholar
  29. Sidman, M., Kirk, B., & Willson-Morris, M. (1985). Six-member stimulus classes generated by conditional discrimination procedures. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 43. 21–42.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1985.43-21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sidman, M., Rauzin, R., Lazar, R., Cunningham, S., Tailby, W., & Carrigan, P. (1982). A search for symmetry in the conditional discriminations of rhesus monkeys, baboons, and children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 23–44.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1982.37-23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sidman, M., & Tailby, W. (1982). Conditional discrimination vs. matching to sample: An expansion of the testing paradigm. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 37. 5–22.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1982.37-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sidman, M., Wynne, C. K., Maguire, R. W., & Barnes, T. (1989). Functional classes and equivalence relations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 52, 261–274.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1989.52-261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Skinner, B. F. (1974). About Behaviorism. London: Jonathon Cape.Google Scholar
  34. Tajfel, H. (1974). Social identity and intergroup behavior. Social Science Information. 13, 65–93.  https://doi.org/10.1177/053901847401300204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tajfel, H. (Ed.). (1978). Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations. European Monographs in Social Psychology. No. 14. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. Trew, K. (1981). Intergroup relations and the development of social identity in Northern Ireland. Paper presented at the sixth Biennial conference of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Canada.Google Scholar
  37. Trew, K. (1983). Group identification in a divided society. In I. Harbison (Ed.), Children of the troubles: Children in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Stranmillis College, Learning Resources Unit.Google Scholar
  38. Watt, A., Keenan, M., Barnes, D., & Cairns, E. (1991). Social categorization and stimulus equivalence. The Psychological Record, 41, 33–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Attracta McGlinchey
    • 1
  • Michael Keenan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Ulster at ColeraineColeraine, County LondonderryN. Ireland

Personalised recommendations