Advertisement

Journal of the Korean Physical Society

, Volume 73, Issue 2, pp 190–202 | Cite as

Droplet Epitaxy for III-V Compound Semiconductor Quantum Nanostructures on Lattice Matched Systems

  • Jong Su KimEmail author
  • Im Sik Han
  • Sang Jun Lee
  • Jin Dong Song
Review Articles
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. JKPS 50th Anniversary Reviews

Abstract

During the Ga-molecules suppling on to the lattice-matched AlGaAs surface, we discussed the Ga-droplet formation dynamics based on Ga migration and diffusion behavior on GaAs (100), (111)A and (111)B surfaces. We discussed the formation mechanism of GaAs quantum dots (QDs), quantum dot molecules (QDMs; coupled QDs), single quantum rings (QRs), and double quantum rings (d-QRs; coupled QRs) complexes. Since the shape of GaAs quantum nanostructures (QNs) on (100) surface is affected by the out-migration of Ga-molecules due to the specific surface As coverage condition during crystallization, we can also control the shape of QNs by varying the conditions of droplet epitaxy process. In addition, by using the nature of the Ga-migration on the (111)A and (111)B surfaces, we fabricated ultra-high density (1.6 × 1011 /cm2) GaAs QDs and ultra-low density (6.5 × 105 /cm2) GaAs QNs on the AlGaAs (111)A and (111)B surfaces surface, respectively.

Keywords

GaAs Droplet epitaxy Quantum nanostructures 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    N. C. van der Vaart, S. F. Godijn, Y. V. Nazarov, C. J. P. M. Harmans, J. E. Mooij, L. W. Molenkamp and C. T. Foxon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4702 (1995).ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    U. Banin, Y. Cao, D. Katz and O. Millo, Nature 400, 542 (1999).ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann and N. N. Ledentsov, Quantum Dot Heterostructures; 1st Edition (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1999).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    A. Lorke, R. Johannes Luyken, A. O. Govorov, J. P. Kotthaus, J. M. Garcia and P. M. Petroff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2223 (2000).ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Y. Arakawa and H. Sakaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 939 (1982).ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    M. Kastner, Phys. Today 46, 24 (1993).ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    I. Amlani, A. O. Orlov, G. Toth, G. H. Bernstein, C. S. Lent and G. L. Snider, Science 284, 289 (1999).ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie and M. Pepper, Science 295, 102 (2002).ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    A. Imre, G. Csaba, L. Ji, A. Orlov, G. H. Bernstein and W. Porod, Science 311, 205 (2006).ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    F. Grillot, C-Y. Lin, N. A. Naderi, M. Pochet and L. F. Lester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153503 (2009).ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    D. Leonard, M. Krishnamurthy, C. M. Reaves, S. P. Denbaars and P. M. Petroff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3203 (1993).ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    J. M. Moison, F. Houzay, F. Barthe, L. Leprince, E. André and O. Vatel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 196 (1994).ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    J. F. Chen, C. H. Chiang, Y. H. Wu, L. Chang and J. Y. Chi, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 023509 (1994).ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    J. S. Kim et al., J. Korean Phys. Soc. 42, S476 (2003).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    J. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. U. Hong, W. S. Han, H-S. Kwack, C. W. Lee and D. K. Oh, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1607 (2004).ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Z. M. Wang, C. Rodriguez, S. Seydmohamadi, Y. I. Mazur, Y. Z. Xie and G. J. Salamo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083107 (2009).ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    N. Koguchi, S. Takahashi and T. Chikyow, J. Cryst. Growth 111, 688 (1991).ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    N. Koguchi, K. Ishige and S. Takahashi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 787 (1993).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    N. Koguchi and K. Ishige, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 2052 (1993).ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    S. Tsukamoto and N. Koguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2199 (1994).ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Y. Nonogaki, T. Iguchi, Y. Fujiwara and Y. Takeda, Appl. Surf. Sci. 117/118, 665 (1997).ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    C. K. Lee, C. Park, H. J. Lee, S. K. Noh, K. S. Lee and S. J. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2615 (1998).ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    C. D. Lee, C. Park, H. J. Lee, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, C. G. Park, S. K. Noh and N. Koguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part1. 37, 7158 (1998).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    T. Mano, K. Watanabe, S. Tsukamoto, H. Fujioka, M. Oshima and N. Koguchi, J. Cryst. Growth 209, 504 (2000).ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    K. Watanabe, N. Koguchi and Y. Gotoh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part2. 39, L79 (2000).Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    J-M. Lee, D. H. Kim, H. Hong, J-C. Woo and S-J. Park, J. Cryst. Growth 212, 67 (2000).ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    T. Mano, K. Watanabe, S. Tsukamoto, Y. Imanaka, T. Takamasu, H. Fujioka, G. Kido, M. Oshima and N. Koguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part1. 39, 4580 (2000).Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    T. Mano, K. Watanabe, S. Tsukamoto, N. Koguchi, H. Fujioka, M. Oshima, C-D. Lee, J-Y. Leem, H. J. Lee and S. K. Noh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3543 (2000).ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    I. Pietzonka, T. Sass, W. Seifert, S. Gray and C. Mogensen, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part1 40, 6531 (2001).Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    K. Ueno, K. Sakaki and A. Koma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part1 40, 1888 (2001).Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    J. S. Kim and N. Koguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5893 (2004).ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    T. Mano, T. Kuroda, S. Sanguinetti, T. Ochiai, T. Tateno, J. S. Kim, T. Noda, M. Kawabe, K. Sakoda, G. Kido and N. Koguchi, Nano Lett. 5, 425 (2005).ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Ch. Heyn, A. Stemmann, A. Schramm, H. Welsch, W. Hansen and Á. Nemcsics, Phys. Rev. B 76, 075317 (2007).ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    J. S. Kim et al., Phys. Status Solidi C 6, 802 (2009).ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Ch. Heyn, A. Stemmann, A. Schramm and W. Hansen, J. Crystal Growth 311, 1825 (2009).ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    J. H. Lee, Zh. M. Wang, E. S. Kim, N. Y. Kim, S. H. Park and G. J. Salamo, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 5, 308 (2010).ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    J. Kim et al., Thin Solid Films 518, 6500 (2010).ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Z. Y. Zhou, C. X. Zheng, W. X. Tang, J. Tersoff and D. E. Jesson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 036102 (2013).ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    C. D. Lee, C. Park, H. J. Lee, S. K. Noh, K. S. Lee and S. J. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2615 (1998).ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    J. S. Kim, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 57, 70 (2017).Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    J. M. Garcia, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, K. Schmidt, T. Ngo, J. L. Feng, A. Lorke, J. Kotthaus and P. M. Petroff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2014 (1997).ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    T. Mano and N. Koguchi, J. Cryst. Growth 278, 108 (2005).ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    J. S. Kim, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, D-K. Ko, J. Lee, Jin S. Kim, I-S. Kim and N. Koguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241911 (2006).ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    P. Alonso-Gonzalez et al., Appl. Phys. Rev. 9, 1216 (2008).Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    V. Dahiya, M. Zamiri, M. G. So, D. A. Hollingshead, J. S. Kim and S. Krishna, J. Cryst. Growth 492, 71 (2018).ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    H. D. Kim et al., Nano Lett. 16, 27 (2016).ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 392, 45 (1984).ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    A. Shapere and F. Wilczek, Geometric Phases in Physics; Advanced Series in Mathematical Physics, Vol. 5 (World Scientific Pub. Co. Inc., Singapore, 1988).zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    X-Q. Li and Y. Yan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 168 (2002).ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    W. Sheng and J-P. Leburton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 167401 (2002).ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    G. Bester, J. Shumway and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 047401 (2004).ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    M. Rontani, S. Amaha, K. Muraki, F. Manghi, E. Molinari, S. Tarucha and D. G. Austing, Phys. Rev. B 69, 085327 (2004).ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    H. J. Krenner, M. Sabathil, E. C. Clark, A. Kress, D. Schul, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter and J. J. Finley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 057402 (2005).ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    G. Ortner, M. Bayer, Y. Lyanda-Geller, T. L. Reinecke, A. Kress, J. P. Reithmaier and A. Forchel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 157401 (2005).ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    M. Yamagiwa, T. Mano, T. Kuroda, T. Tateno, K. Sakoda, G. Kido and N. Koguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113115 (2006).ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    G. J. Beirne, C. Hermannstädter, L. Wang, A. Rastelli, O. G. Schmidt and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 137401 (2006).ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    J. S. Kim, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 53, 2138 (2008).ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    J. S. Kim, H. Kang, C. C. Byeon, M. S. Jeong, S-Y. Yim, J. O. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. K. Noh, Jin S. Kim and J. Y. Leem, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 55, 1051 (2009).ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    H. Y. Choi, M. Y. Cho, M. S. Kim, J-Y. Leem, D-Y. Lee, Jin S. Kim and J. S. Kim, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 58, 1324 (2011).ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    R. P. Smith, J. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. K. Noh, Jin S. Kim, J-Y. Leem and J. D. Song, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 60, 1428 (2012).ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. [62]
    S. J. Lee, J. S. Kim, C. C. Byeon, H. Kang, M. S. Jeong, J. D. Song, J-Y. Leem, K-C. Je, S. J. Lee and S. K. Noh, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 61, 455 (2012).ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    P. Moon, J. D. Lee, S. K. Ha, E. H. Lee, W. J. Choi, J. D. Song, J. S. Kim and L. S. Dang, Phys. Status Solidi RRL 6, 445 (2012).Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    N. S. Myoung, O. M. Mun, S-Y. Yim and J. S. Kim, J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 15, 8684 (2015).Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    H. Kim, I. Kim, K. Kyhm, R. A. Taylor, J. S. Kim, J. D. Song, K. C. Je and L. S. Dang, Nano Lett. 16, 7755 (2016).ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. [66]
    J. S. Kim, Physica Status Solidi RRL 10, 696 (2016).ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. [67]
    S. Lee, I. Yeo, M. K. Jo, Y. W. Jeong, T. G. Kim and J. S. Kim, Current Appl. Phys. 18, 829 (2018).ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. [68]
    J. S. Kim, M. Kawabe and N. Koguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 072107 (2006).ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. [69]
    S-K. Ha, J. D. Song, S. Y. Kim, J. I. Lee, S. Bounouar, L. S. Dang and J. S. Kim, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 58, 1330 (2011).ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. [70]
    E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, J. J. Yoon, M. H. Bae, I. K. Han, W. J. Choi, S. K. Chang, Y. D. Kim and J. S. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 154308 (2013).ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, I-K. Han, S-K. Chang, F. Langer, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, M. Kamp and J. S. Kim, Nanoscale Research Lett. 10, 114 (2015).ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    A. Ohtake, Surf. Sci. Rep. 63, 295 (2008).ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    C. Somaschini, S. Bietti, N. Koguchi and S. Sanguinetti, Nano Lett. 9, 3419 (2009).ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. [74]
    A. Ohtake, P. Kocán, J. nakamura, A. Natori and N. Koguchi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 236105 (2004).ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. [75]
    J. A. Venables, Surf. Sci. 299/300, 789 (1994).ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. [76]
    J. S. Kim, M. Kawabe and N. Koguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L103 (2004).ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. [77]
    S. Bietti, C. Somaschini, L. Esposito, A. Fedrov and S. Sanguinetti, J. Appl. Phys. 116, 114311 (2014).ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. [78]
    S. S. Huang, Z. C. Niu, Z. D. Fang, H. Q. Ni, Z. Gong and J. B. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031921 (2006).ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. [79]
    Y. Kangawa, T. Ito, A. Taguchi, K. Shiraishi, T. Irisawa and T. Ohachi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 190, 517 (2002).ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. [80]
    M. Hata, T. Isu, A. Watanabe and Y. Katayama, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 692 (1990).Google Scholar
  81. [81]
    T. Nishinaga and T. Suzuki, J. Crystal Growth 115, 398 (1991).ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. [82]
    A. Ohtake, J. Nakamura, S. Tsukamoto, N. Koguchi and A. Natori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 206102 (2002).ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. [83]
    I. T. Ito, K. Tsutsumida, K. Nakamura, Y. Kangawa, K. Shiraishi, A. Taguchi and H. Kageshima, Appl. Surf. Sci. 237, 194 (2004).ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. [84]
    Y. Nomura, Y. Morishita, S. Goto, Y. Katayama and T. Isu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1123 (1994).ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. [85]
    K. Hiruma, T. Katsuyama, K. Ogawa, M. Koguchi, H. Kakibayashi and G. P. Morgan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 431 (1991).ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. [86]
    J. Bauer, V. Gottschalch and G. Wagner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 114315 (2008).Google Scholar
  87. [87]
    D. A. Woolf, D. I. Westwood and R. H. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1370 (1993).ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. [88]
    K. W. Haberern and M. D. Pashley, Phys. Rev. B 41, 3226 (1990).ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. [89]
    A. Ohtake, J. Nakamura, T. Komura, T. Hanada, T. Yao, H. Kuramochi and M. Ozeki, Phys. Rev. B 64, 045318 (2001).ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. [90]
    T. Takebe, M. Fujii, T. Yamamoto, K. Fujita and T. Watanabe, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 7273 (1997).ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. [91]
    J. H. Neave, P. J. Dobson, B. A. Joyce and J. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 100 (1985).ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. [92]
    S. Clarke and D. D. Vvedensky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2235 (1987).ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. [93]
    M. Missous, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4467 (1995).ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. [94]
    M. Kaminska, Z. Liliental-Weber, E. R. Weber, T. George and J. B. Kortright, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1881 (1990).ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. [95]
    S. Nagata and T. Tanaka, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 940 (1977).ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. [96]
    P. M. DeLuca, J. G. C. Labanda and S. A. Barnett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1719 (1999).ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. [97]
    V. P. Labella, D. W. Bullock, Z. Ding, C. Emery, W. G. Harter and P. M. Thibado, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 1526 (2000).ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. [98]
    S. Koshiba, Y. Nakamura, M. Tsuchiya, H. Noge, H. Kano, T. Noda and H. Sakaki, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4138 (1994).ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. [99]
    M. Hata, T. Isu, A. Watanabe and Y. Katayama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2542 (1990).ADSGoogle Scholar
  100. [100]
    X-Q. Shen, D. Kisimoto and T. Nishinaga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 11 (1994).ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. [101]
    M. López and Y. Nomura, J. Cryst. Growth 150, 68 (1995).ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. [102]
    H. Yamaguchi and Y. Homma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3079 (1998).ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Physical Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jong Su Kim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Im Sik Han
    • 2
  • Sang Jun Lee
    • 3
  • Jin Dong Song
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsYeungnam UniversityGyeongsanKorea
  2. 2.Department of Electronic and Electrical EngineeringUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  3. 3.Division of Convergence TechnologyKorea Research Institute of Standards and ScienceDaejeonKorea
  4. 4.Post-Silicon Semiconductor InstituteKorea Institute of Science and TechnologySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations