Contrasting mechanistic accounts of the lexical boost

Abstract

While many recent studies focused on abstract syntactic priming effects have implicated an error-based learning mechanism, there is little consensus on the most likely mechanism underlying the lexical boost. The current study aimed at refining understanding of the mechanism that leads to this priming effect. In two eye-tracking during reading experiments, the nature of the lexical boost was investigated by comparing predictions from competing accounts in terms of decay and the requirement of structural overlap between primes and targets. Experiment 1 revealed facilitation of target structure processing for shorter relative to longer primes, when there were fewer intervening words between prime and target verbs. In Experiment 2, significant lexically boosted priming effects were observed, but only when the target structure also appeared in the prime, and not when the prime had a different structure but a high degree of lexical overlap with the target. Overall, these results are most consistent with a short-lived mechanistic account rather than an error-based learning account of the lexical boost. Furthermore, these results align with dual-mechanism accounts of syntactic priming whereby different mechanisms are claimed to produce abstract syntactic priming effects and the lexical boost.

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Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank Maxwell Helfrich, Emily Arzola, Nicole Kuylen, and Ashley Frost for assistance with data collection and post-processing.

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Correspondence to Kristen M. Tooley.

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Appendix: Experimental Stimuli

Appendix: Experimental Stimuli

Experiment 1: Targets were preceded by one of three prime types (a. Main Clause (baseline) Prime: same verb; b. Long Prime: same verb and RRC structure, but with 4-7 additional words after post-by-phrase region; c. Short Prime: same verb and RRC structure) across experimental lists.

  1. 1.

    Target: The architect selected by the firm had years of experience.

    1. a.

      The group selected the speaker who gave a great presentation.

    2. b.

      The speaker selected by the group gave a great presentation at the conference.

    3. c.

      The speaker selected by the group gave a great presentation.

  2. 2.

    Target: The mouse watched by the cat ate some delicious cheese.

    1. a.

      The cop watched the junkie who walked very slowly down the empty street.

    2. b.

      The junkie watched by the cop walked very slowly down the empty street.

    3. c.

      The junkie watched by the cop walked very slowly.

  3. 3.

    Target: The singer loved by the fan married a movie star.

    1. a.

      The class loved the teacher who smiled a lot.

    2. b.

      The teacher loved by the class smiled a lot and was a great listener.

    3. c.

      The teacher loved by the class smiled a lot.

  4. 4.

    Target: The chef graded by the panel used lots of butter.

    1. a.

      The professor graded the student who received high marks.

    2. b.

      The student graded by the professor received high marks relative to the rest of his peers.

    3. c.

      The student graded by the professor received high marks.

  5. 5.

    Target: The secretary appreciated by the accountant kept things very organized.

    1. a.

      The principal appreciated the teacher who organized a fundraiser to support the new library.

    2. b.

      The teacher appreciated by the principal organized a fundraiser to support the new library.

    3. c.

      The teacher appreciated by the principal organized a fundraiser.

  6. 6.

    Target: The victim identified by the doctor was in bad shape.

    1. a.

      The driver identified the suspect who fled the scene before the police arrived.

    2. b.

      The suspect identified by the driver fled the scene before the police arrived.

    3. c.

      The suspect identified by the driver fled the scene.

  7. 7.

    Target: The governor excited by the liberals called a press conference.

    1. a.

      The politician excited the protestors who chanted loudly.

    2. b.

      The protesters excited by the politician chanted loudly and cheered when the speech was over.

    3. c.

      The protesters excited by the politician chanted loudly.

  8. 8.

    Target: A driver stopped by the policeman was drinking and driving.

    1. a.

      The lifeguard stopped the child who was running near the pool.

    2. b.

      The child stopped by the lifeguard was running near the side of the pool.

    3. c.

      The child stopped by the lifeguard was running.

  9. 9.

    Target: The consumer convinced by the salesman bought the new stove.

    1. a.

      The mayor convinced the voters who reelected him by a wide margin.

    2. b.

      The voters convinced by the mayor reelected him by a very wide margin.

    3. c.

      The voters convinced by the mayor reelected him.

  10. 10.

    Target: The passengers injured by the reckless driver needed medical attention.

    1. a.

      The Labrador injured the child who cried loudly for his mother.

    2. b.

      The child injured by the Labrador cried loudly and called for his mother.

    3. c.

      The child injured by the Labrador cried.

  11. 11.

    Target: The dog located by the hunter had an injured paw.

    1. a.

      The scientist located the bird that was endangered.

    2. b.

      The bird located by the scientist was endangered due to habitat destruction and poaching.

    3. c.

      The bird located by the scientist was endangered.

  12. 12.

    Target: The man scolded by the security guard was heavily intoxicated.

    1. a.

      The babysitter scolded the child who went to bed.

    2. b.

      The child scolded by the babysitter went to bed early without having any dessert.

    3. c.

      The child scolded by the babysitter went to bed.

  13. 13.

    Target: A spy caught by the FBI agent went to prison.

    1. a.

      The detective caught the imposter who started to panic.

    2. b.

      The imposter caught by the detective started to panic and asked to call his lawyer.

    3. c.

      The imposter caught by the detective started to panic.

  14. 14.

    Target: The homeowner frightened by a loud noise called the police.

    1. a.

      The coyote frightened a horse that galloped away.

    2. b.

      A horse frightened by the coyote galloped away toward the safety of the barn.

    3. c.

      A horse frightened by the coyote galloped away.

  15. 15.

    Target: The toddler fascinated by the parrot fed him many peanuts.

    1. a.

      The monkey fascinated the girl who giggled as she played with him.

    2. b.

      The girl fascinated by the monkey giggled as she played games with him.

    3. c.

      The girl fascinated by the monkey giggled.

  16. 16.

    Target: The tutor offended by the delinquent refused to teach him.

    1. a.

      The duke offended the countess who told her husband about the rude behavior.

    2. b.

      The countess offended by the duke told her husband about the rude behavior.

    3. c.

      The countess offended by the duke told her husband.

  17. 17.

    Target: The campers stalked by the cougar were in grave danger.

    1. a.

      The owl stalked the chipmunk that scurried away under a large bush.

    2. b.

      The chipmunk stalked by the owl scurried away and hid under a large bush.

    3. c.

      The chipmunk stalked by the owl scurried away.

  18. 18.

    Target: The student helped by a counselor chose a new major.

    1. a.

      The nurses helped the surgeons who operated all night.

    2. b.

      The surgeons helped by the nurses operated all night on one critical patient.

    3. c.

      The surgeons helped by the nurses operated all night.

  19. 19.

    Target: The man rescued by the sailor was wet and cold.

    1. a.

      The paramedics rescued the miners who recovered slowly from their experience.

    2. b.

      The miners rescued by the paramedics recovered slowly from their harrowing experience.

    3. c.

      The miners rescued by the paramedics recovered slowly.

  20. 20.

    Target: The butler questioned by the widow lied about his actions.

    1. a.

      The inspector questioned the carpenter who acted nervous.

    2. b.

      The carpenter questioned by the inspector acted nervous and unsure about his answers.

    3. c.

      The carpenter questioned by the inspector acted nervous.

  21. 21.

    Target: A child grabbed by the guard had wandered into traffic.

    1. a.

      An eagle grabbed the mouse that squeaked and managed to squirm itself free.

    2. b.

      The mouse grabbed by an eagle squeaked and managed to squirm itself free.

    3. c.

      The mouse grabbed by an eagle squeaked.

  22. 22.

    Target: A hobo ignored by the conductor snuck aboard the train.

    1. a.

      The salesman ignored the customers who were impatient.

    2. b.

      The customers ignored by the salesman were impatient to the point of leaving the store.

    3. c.

      The customers ignored by the salesman were impatient.

  23. 23.

    Target: The juror accused by the judge was held in contempt.

    1. a.

      The supervisor accused the employee who got fired from his job.

    2. b.

      The employee accused by the supervisor got fired from his job at the credit union.

    3. c.

      The employee accused by the supervisor got fired.

  24. 24.

    Target: The king pleased by the jester pardoned the accused thief.

    1. a.

      A puppy pleased the baby who stopped crying.

    2. b.

      The baby pleased by a puppy stopped crying and reached out to touch it.

    3. c.

      The baby pleased by a puppy stopped crying.

  25. 25.

    Target: A man astounded by the astronaut read his new book.

    1. a.

      The magician astounded the woman who applauded after each trick.

    2. b.

      The woman astounded by the magician applauded and whistled after each trick.

    3. c.

      The woman astounded by the magician applauded.

  26. 26.

    Target: The monkey lifted by the trainer begged for a treat.

    1. a.

      The elephant lifted the man who held on tightly.

    2. b.

      The man lifted by the elephant held on tightly and yelled for someone to help him.

    3. c.

      The man lifted by the elephant held on tightly.

  27. 27.

    Target: The woman shoved by the thief screamed for the police.

    1. a.

      The referee shoved the player who missed the goal.

    2. b.

      The player shoved by the referee missed the goal and the game ended in a tie.

    3. c.

      The player shoved by the referee missed the goal.

  28. 28.

    Target: The girl pulled by her father begged to play longer.

    1. a.

      Some playmates pulled the boy who struggled.

    2. b.

      The boy pulled by some playmates struggled and asked them to leave him alone.

    3. c.

      The boy pulled by some playmates struggled.

  29. 29.

    Target: The man rejected by the woman bought himself a drink.

    1. a.

      The fraternity rejected the nerd who had no friends.

    2. b.

      The nerd rejected by the fraternity had no friends to teach him the ropes.

    3. c.

      The nerd rejected by the fraternity had no friends.

  30. 30.

    Target: The Girl Scout startled by the woman dropped her cookies.

    1. a.

      The intruder startled the dog that barked and growled.

    2. b.

      The dog startled by the intruder barked and gave a long, threatening growl.

    3. c.

      The dog startled by the intruder barked.

  31. 31.

    Target: The pitcher replaced by the coach got the big win.

    1. a.

      The director replaced the actor who filed a lawsuit.

    2. b.

      The actor replaced by the director filed a lawsuit for unlawful termination.

    3. c.

      The actor replaced by the director filed a lawsuit.

  32. 32.

    Target: The victim cheated by the insurance agency had medical bills.

    1. a.

      The employer cheated the aide who lost his pay.

    2. b.

      The aide cheated by the employer lost his pay and had to borrow money.

    3. c.

      The aide cheated by the employer lost his pay.

  33. 33.

    Target: The pupil praised by the academic counselor studied extra hard.

    1. a.

      The scout praised the player who received a scholarship.

    2. b.

      The player praised by the scout received a scholarship for tuition, room, and board.

    3. c.

      The player praised by the scout received a scholarship.

  34. 34.

    Target: The woman tired by the children needed a short break.

    1. a.

      The coach tired the swimmer who hated the backstroke.

    2. b.

      The swimmer tired by the coach hated the backstroke and long training sessions.

    3. c.

      The swimmer tired by the coach hated the backstroke.

  35. 35.

    Target: The policeman fooled by the suspect released him from custody.

    1. a.

      The deejay fooled the contestant who received no prize.

    2. b.

      The contestant fooled by the deejay received no prize for calling into the radio show.

    3. c.

      The contestant fooled by the deejay received no prize.

  36. 36.

    Target: A first-grader skipped by the bus driver walked to school.

    1. a.

      The stewardess skipped the passenger who got no peanuts.

    2. b.

      The passenger skipped by the stewardess got no peanuts or an in-flight beverage.

    3. c.

      The passenger skipped by the stewardess got no peanuts.

Experiment 2: Targets were preceded by one of four prime types (a. Locative Prime: same verb and by-phrase wording, but different structure; b. RRC Same Verb Prime: same verb and structure; c. RRC Different Verb Prime: different verb but same structure; d. MC Baseline Prime: different verb and structure) across experimental lists.

  1. 1.

    Target: The secretary pushed by the burglar called for help.

    1. a.

      The girl pushed by the man to get to the front of the line.

    2. b.

      The girl pushed by the man was going to the front of the line.

    3. c.

      The girl noticed by the man was going to the front of the line.

    4. d.

      The girl noticed the man who was going to the front of the line.

  2. 2.

    Target: The child pushed by the dog cried for his parents.

    1. a.

      The sheriff pushed by the bystanders to get a look at the crime scene.

    2. b.

      The sheriff pushed by the bystanders tried to get a look at the crime scene.

    3. c.

      The sheriff blocked by the bystanders tried to get a look at the crime scene.

    4. d.

      The sheriff blocked the bystanders who tried to get a look at the crime scene.

  3. 3.

    Target: A boy pushed by a bully decided to transfer schools.

    1. a.

      The president pushed by the aid in order to talk to the reporters.

    2. b.

      The president pushed by the aid was trying to talk to the reporters.

    3. c.

      The president appreciated by the aide was trying to talk to the reporters.

    4. d.

      The president appreciated the aide who was trying to talk to the reporters.

  4. 4.

    Target: A comic pushed by the audience member told many offensive jokes.

    1. a.

      The teller pushed by the manager so that he could get to his desk.

    2. b.

      The teller pushed by the manager was trying to get to his desk.

    3. c.

      The teller insulted by the manager was trying to get to his desk.

    4. d.

      The teller insulted the manager who was trying to get to his desk.

  1. 5.

    Target: The girl squeezed by the relative was shy of strangers.

    1. a.

      The messenger squeezed by the security guard to deliver a letter.

    2. b.

      The messenger squeezed by the security guard was trying to deliver a letter.

    3. c.

      The messenger approached by the security guard was trying to deliver a letter.

    4. d.

      The messenger approached the security guard who was trying to deliver a letter.

  2. 6.

    Target: The lifeguard squeezed by the child was trying to get her to safety.

    1. a.

      A runner squeezed by the official on his way to the starting line.

    2. b.

      A runner squeezed by the official was on his way to the starting line.

    3. c.

      A runner questioned by the official was on his way to the starting line.

    4. d.

      A runner questioned the official who was on his way to the starting line.

  3. 7.

    Target: The boy squeezed by his parents was not excited to attend summer camp.

    1. a.

      The lady squeezed by the border agent to get back to her car.

    2. b.

      The lady squeezed by the border agent was trying to get back to her car.

    3. c.

      The lady insulted by the border agent was trying to get back to her car.

    4. d.

      The lady insulted the border agent who was trying to get back to her car.

  4. 8.

    Target: A boy squeezed by the teacher was not paying attention in class.

    1. a.

      The teenager squeezed by the performers when heading backstage.

    2. b.

      The teenager squeezed by the performers was heading backstage.

    3. c.

      The teenager disliked by the performers was heading backstage.

    4. d.

      The teenager disliked the performers who were heading backstage.

  1. 9.

    Target: The man stopped by the sheriff was driving faster than the speed limit.

    1. a.

      The student stopped by the class to pick up her belongings.

    2. b.

      The student stopped by the class was going to pick up her belongings.

    3. c.

      The student appreciated by the class was going to pick up her belongings.

    4. d.

      The student appreciated the class who were going to pick up her belongings.

  2. 10.

    Target: A woman stopped by the salesman was trying to shoplift.

    1. a.

      The waitress stopped by the table to clear some dirty plates.

    2. b.

      The waitress stopped by the table needed to clear some dirty plates.

    3. c.

      The waitress questioned by the table needed to clear some dirty plates.

    4. d.

      The waitress questioned the table about the need to clear some dirty plates.

  3. 11.

    Target: The driver stopped by the cyclist was asked to provide help.

    1. a.

      A deliveryman stopped by the shop on his way to make a delivery.

    2. b.

      A deliveryman stopped by the shop was on his way to make a delivery.

    3. c.

      A deliveryman noticed by the shop was on his way to make a delivery.

    4. d.

      A deliveryman noticed the shop while on his way to make a delivery.

  4. 12.

    Target: An astronaut stopped by the engineer needing briefing on the mission.

    1. a.

      The farmer stopped by the wholesaler to pick up some pig feed.

    2. b.

      The farmer stopped by the wholesaler was picking up some pig feed.

    3. c.

      The farmer challenged by the wholesaler was picking up some pig feed.

    4. d.

      The farmer challenged the wholesaler who was picking up some pig feed.

  1. 13.

    Target: The lady shoved by the officer filed a complaint at the station.

    1. a.

      A man shoved by the protestor to get inside the building.

    2. b.

      A man shoved by the protestor was trying to get inside the building.

    3. c.

      A man insulted by the protestor was trying to get inside the building.

    4. d.

      A man insulted the protestor who was trying to get inside the building.

  2. 14.

    Target: A waiter shoved by the manager was three hours late for his shift.

    1. a.

      The patient shoved by the doctor on her way to get a drink of water.

    2. b.

      The patient shoved by the doctor was on her way to get a drink of water.

    3. c.

      The patient disliked by the doctor was on her way to get a drink of water.

    4. d.

      The patient disliked the doctor who was on her way to get a drink of water.

  3. 15.

    Target: The prince shoved by the peasant was not liked by commoners.

    1. a.

      Someone shoved by the bouncer so they could steal the guest list.

    2. b.

      Someone shoved by the bouncer was trying to steal the guest list.

    3. c.

      Someone approached by the bouncer was trying to steal the guest list.

    4. d.

      Someone approached the bouncer who was trying to steal the guest list.

  4. 16.

    Target: A girl shoved by her mother was standing in the way of traffic.

    1. a.

      A man shoved by the guard to get a picture of the famous artist.

    2. b.

      A man shoved by the guard was taking a picture of the famous artist.

    3. c.

      A man approached by the guard was taking a picture of the famous artist.

    4. d.

      A man approached the guard who was taking a picture of the famous artist.

  1. 17.

    Target: The toddler moved by the babysitter was covered in sand.

    1. a.

      The waitress moved by the patrons to grab the stack of menus.

    2. b.

      The waitress moved by the patrons grabbed the stack of menus.

    3. c.

      The waitress questioned by the patrons grabbed the stack of menus.

    4. d.

      The waitress questioned the patrons who grabbed the stack on menus.

  2. 18.

    Target: The juggler moved by the clown dropped his balls.

    1. a.

      A cook moved by the patron when heading through the kitchen entrance.

    2. b.

      A cook moved by the patron was heading through the kitchen entrance.

    3. c.

      A cook observed by the patron was heading through the kitchen entrance.

    4. d.

      A cook observed the patron who was heading through the kitchen entrance.

  3. 19.

    Target: A kitten moved by the cat was getting too far from the rest of the litter.

    1. a.

      The violinist moved by the cellist to get to her seat.

    2. b.

      The violinist moved by the cellist lost her seat.

    3. c.

      The violinist approached by the cellist lost her seat.

    4. d.

      The violinist approached the cellist who lost her seat.

  4. 20.

    Target: The car moved by the truck had broken down on the highway.

    1. a.

      The pigeon moved by the old man to get to the breadcrumbs.

    2. b.

      The pigeon moved by the old man wanted to get to the breadcrumbs.

    3. c.

      The pigeon delayed by the old man wanted to get to the breadcrumbs.

    4. d.

      The pigeon delayed the old man who wanted to toss the breadcrumbs.

  1. 21.

    Target: A spectator bumped by the performer was very embarrassed.

    1. a.

      The stewardess bumped by the passenger to get to the restroom.

    2. b.

      The stewardess bumped by the passenger was going to the restroom.

    3. c.

      The stewardess blocked by the passenger was going to the restroom.

    4. d.

      The stewardess blocked the passenger who was going to the restroom.

  2. 22.

    Target: A sparrow bumped by the crow flew away in fright.

    1. a.

      The donkey bumped by the horse on his way to the water trough.

    2. b.

      The donkey bumped by the horse was on his way to the water trough.

    3. c.

      The donkey delayed by the horse was on his way to the water trough.

    4. d.

      The donkey delayed the horse that was on his way to the water trough.

  3. 23.

    Target: The father bumped by the dog almost dropped the baby.

    1. a.

      The welder bumped by the machinist to get to the lunch table.

    2. b.

      The welder bumped by the machinist wanted to get to the lunch table.

    3. c.

      The welder dismissed by the machinist wanted to get to the lunch table.

    4. d.

      The welder dismissed the machinist who wanted to get to the lunch table.

  4. 24.

    Target: The ship bumped by the whale began to sway back and forth.

    1. a.

      A squirrel bumped by the bird to get the seeds from the birdfeeder.

    2. b.

      A squirrel bumped by the bird wanted to get the seeds from the birdfeeder.

    3. c.

      A squirrel watched by the bird wanted to get the seeds from the birdfeeder.

    4. d.

      A squirrel watched the bird that wanted to get the seeds from the birdfeeder.

  1. 25.

    Target: The chef elbowed by the busboy had a black eye for a week.

    1. a.

      The fan elbowed by the bouncer to meet the star in person.

    2. b.

      The fan elbowed by the bouncer wanted to meet the star in person.

    3. c.

      The fan watched by the bouncer wanted to meet the star in person.

    4. d.

      The fan watched the bouncer who wanted to meet the star in person.

  2. 26.

    Target: The swimmer elbowed by the opponent was not able to win the race.

    1. a.

      The teacher elbowed by the parents in order to get to her classroom.

    2. b.

      The teacher elbowed by the parents was trying to get to her classroom.

    3. c.

      The teacher noticed by the parents was trying to get to her classroom.

    4. d.

      The teacher noticed the parents who were trying to get to her classroom.

  3. 27.

    Target: The hiker elbowed by the guide was standing in a dangerous spot.

    1. a.

      A contestant elbowed by an audience member on her way to the stage.

    2. b.

      A contestant elbowed by an audience member was on her way to the stage.

    3. c.

      A contestant challenged by an audience member was on her way to the stage.

    4. d.

      A contestant challenged an audience member who was on her way to the stage.

  4. 28.

    Target: A man elbowed by a thug was unable to call for help.

    1. a.

      The singer elbowed by the band to get to the stage door.

    2. b.

      The singer elbowed by the band was heading to the stage door.

    3. c.

      The singer dismissed by the band was heading to the stage door.

    4. d.

      The singer dismissed the band that was heading to the stage door.

  1. 29.

    Target: A woman skipped by the attendant did not pay for her entry into the park.

    1. a.

      A boy skipped by the teacher on his way to the water fountain.

    2. b.

      A boy skipped by the teacher lost his turn at the water fountain.

    3. c.

      A boy disliked by the teacher lost his turn at the water fountain.

    4. d.

      A boy disliked the teacher who took his turn at the water fountain.

  2. 30.

    Target: A winner skipped by the announcer did not know about her prize.

    1. a.

      The patient skipped by the nurse because she did not want a drink.

    2. b.

      The patient skipped by the nurse did not receive a drink.

    3. c.

      The patient watched by the nurse did not receive a drink.

    4. d.

      The patient watched the nurse who did not receive a drink.

  3. 31.

    Target: A worker skipped by the foreman never got his paycheck.

    1. a.

      The girl skipped by group so she could get to the new playground.

    2. b.

      The girl skipped by the group was going to the new playground.

    3. c.

      The girl approached by the group was going to the new playground.

    4. d.

      The girl approached the group who was going to the new playground.

  4. 32.

    Target: The miner skipped by the paramedic was already starting to recover.

    1. a.

      A model skipped by the photographer on her way to the catwalk.

    2. b.

      A model skipped by the photographer was on her way to the catwalk.

    3. c.

      A model appreciated by the photographer was on her way to the catwalk.

    4. d.

      A model appreciated the photographer who was on her way to the catwalk.

  1. 33.

    Target: The sedan raced by the motorcycle lost by half a mile.

    1. a.

      The team raced by the coach to get to the mile marker first.

    2. b.

      The team raced by the coach got to the mile marker first.

    3. c.

      The team challenged by the coach got to the mile marker first.

    4. d.

      The team challenged the coach who got to the mile marker first.

  2. 34.

    Target: The teenager raced by the quarterback got out to an early lead.

    1. a.

      The pony raced by the Labrador and continued down the field.

    2. b.

      The pony raced by the Labrador was heading down the field.

    3. c.

      The pony blocked by the Labrador was heading down the field.

    4. d.

      The pony blocked the Labrador that was heading down the field.

  3. 35.

    Target: The pitcher raced by the catcher got to home plate first.

    1. a.

      The niece raced by the uncle and went running into the house.

    2. b.

      The niece raced by the uncle went running into the house.

    3. c.

      The niece insulted by the uncle went running into the house.

    4. d.

      The niece insulted the uncle who went running into the house.

  4. 36.

    Target: The sprinter raced by the marathoner did not have the stamina to win.

    1. a.

      A paramedic raced by a nurse to get to the person in need.

    2. b.

      A paramedic raced by a nurse got to the person in need.

    3. c.

      A paramedic observed by a nurse got to the person in need.

    4. d.

      A paramedic observed a nurse who got to the person in need.

  1. 37.

    Target: The boy nudged by the classmate had fallen asleep during the lecture.

    1. a.

      The cashier nudged by the customer on his way to the checkout stand.

    2. b.

      The cashier nudged by the customer was on his way to the checkout stand.

    3. c.

      The cashier observed by the customer was on his way to the checkout stand.

    4. d.

      The cashier observed the customer who was on his way to the checkout stand.

  2. 38.

    Target: A man nudged by the security guard was trespassing in a restricted area.

    1. a.

      The pedestrian nudged by the dog-walker to cross the street.

    2. b.

      The pedestrian nudged by the dog-walker crossed the street.

    3. c.

      The pedestrian questioned by the dog-walker crossed the street.

    4. d.

      The pedestrian questioned the dog-walker who crossed the street.

  3. 39.

    Target: A vagrant nudged by the officer was being arrested for loitering.

    1. a.

      The girl nudged by the adults to get more cookies from the tray.

    2. b.

      The girl nudged by the adults wanted more cookies from the tray.

    3. c.

      The girl noticed by the adults wanted more cookies from the tray.

    4. d.

      The girl noticed the adults who wanted more cookies from the tray.

  4. 40.

    Target: The snorkeler nudged by the turtle swam away quickly.

    1. a.

      A solicitor nudged by the woman in order to demonstrate his product.

    2. b.

      A solicitor nudged by the woman wanted to demonstrate his product.

    3. c.

      A solicitor dismissed by the woman wanted to demonstrate his product.

    4. d.

      A solicitor dismissed the woman who wanted him to demonstrate his product.

  1. 41.

    Target: The senior hustled by the salesman impulsively decided to buy the product.

    1. a.

      An actor hustled by the director to get to the audition on time.

    2. b.

      An actor hustled by the director did not get to the audition on time.

    3. c.

      An actor delayed by the director did not get to the audition on time.

    4. d.

      An actor delayed the director who did not get to the audition on time.

  2. 42.

    Target: The man hustled by the trainer wanted to get faster and stronger.

    1. a.

      A solider hustled by the commander so he could complete the ropes course.

    2. b.

      A solider hustled by the commander was trying to complete the ropes course.

    3. c.

      A solider disliked by the commander was trying to complete the ropes course.

    4. d.

      A solider disliked the commander who was trying to complete the ropes course.

  3. 43.

    Target: The knight hustled by the princess was needed to slay a dragon.

    1. a.

      A player hustled by the coaches to take his position on the field.

    2. b.

      A player hustled by the coaches took his position on the field.

    3. c.

      A player appreciated by the coaches took his position on the field.

    4. d.

      A player appreciated the coaches who saved his position on the field.

  4. 44.

    Target: The technician hustled by the event planner was in charge of the sound system.

    1. a.

      An American hustled by the federal agent to get in the customs line.

    2. b.

      An American hustled by the federal agent was getting in the customs line.

    3. c.

      An American blocked by the federal agent was getting in the customs line.

    4. d.

      An American blocked the federal agent who was getting in the customs line.

  1. 45.

    Target: A child hurried by the counselor was taking too long to decide.

    1. a.

      An architect hurried by the client to avoid telling her the design was flawed.

    2. b.

      An architect hurried by the client was telling her why the design was flawed.

    3. c.

      An architect dismissed by the client was telling her why the design was flawed.

    4. d.

      An architect dismissed the client who was telling her why the design was flawed.

  2. 46.

    Target: A boy hurried by the teacher was running late for lunch.

    1. a.

      The speaker hurried by the students so that he could avoid questioning.

    2. b.

      The speaker hurried by the students wanted to avoid questioning.

    3. c.

      The speaker delayed by the students wanted to avoid questioning.

    4. d.

      The speaker delayed the students who wanted to avoid questioning.

  3. 47.

    Target: The driver hurried by the passenger would be too late to see the movie.

    1. a.

      A shopper hurried by the owner because he was in the store past closing.

    2. b.

      A shopper hurried by the owner was in the store past closing.

    3. c.

      A shopper watched by the owner was in the store past closing.

    4. d.

      A shopper watched the owner who was in the store past closing.

  4. 48.

    Target: A performer hurried by the manager was late for another performance.

    1. a.

      The attendant hurried by the passengers to check on an emergency.

    2. b.

      The attendant hurried by the passengers went to check on an emergency.

    3. c.

      The attendant challenged by the passengers went to check on an emergency.

    4. d.

      The attendant challenged the passengers who went to check on an emergency.

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Tooley, K.M. Contrasting mechanistic accounts of the lexical boost. Mem Cogn 48, 815–838 (2020). https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-020-01019-3

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Keywords

  • Syntactic priming
  • Comprehension
  • Lexical boost