Implicit mechanisms of body image alterations: The covert attention exposure effect

Abstract

Visual exposure to extreme-sized bodies elicits explicit self-body image variations. Several features of such modulation remain to be clarified. In this study we explored whether this effect: (i) acts on implicit mechanisms in modifying one’s body-size perception, (ii) is body-exposure-specific also at the implicit level, and (iii) is modulated by interoceptive sensibility. We assigned a covert attention task to 100 women, exposing them to extreme-sized bodies (thin and fat) or extreme-sized objects (thin and fat bottles). Before and after the attentional exposure, we tested the association between the “self/others” and “thin/fat” concepts using an Implicit Association Test. We also collected a measure of interoceptive sensibility by means of a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that participants exposed to fat bodies implicitly presented a stronger association between the “self” and “thin” concepts. This association was significantly weaker in the group exposed to thin bodies. This effect was absent after exposure to thin and fat bottles. Notably, participants with a higher tolerance of negative bodily interoceptive signals were less susceptible to the malleability of body image exerted by the exposure attentional task. Our findings shed new light on the relationship between the perception of internal (e.g., visceral) and external (e.g., visual) signals in the representation of our body.

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The data and materials for all experiments are available upon reasonable request. The study was not preregistered.

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Salvato, G., Romano, D., De Maio, G. et al. Implicit mechanisms of body image alterations: The covert attention exposure effect. Atten Percept Psychophys 82, 1808–1817 (2020). https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-019-01921-2

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Keywords

  • Attention
  • Visual perception
  • Embodied perception