Advertisement

Normative data for Chinese-English paired associates

  • Kit W. ChoEmail author
  • Chi-Shing Tse
  • Yuen-Lai Chan
Article

Abstract

Paired-associate learning is one of the most commonly used paradigms to study human memory. In many of these studies, participants are typically told to learn foreign language–English translations, such as Swahili–English or Lithuanian–English pairs. One limitation of these currently available foreign language–English translation norms is that their foreign languages are based on the alphabetic writing system, thereby preventing researchers from generalizing their findings to languages based on logographic writing systems. In the present study we collected normative data for 160 Chinese–English word pairs. Participants completed three study–test cycles, followed by metacognitive judgments on their learning experience. For each pair, we report recall performance, recall latency, ease of learning, and judgments of learning. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis with frequency (of both the English word and the Chinese character), word length (English), and number of strokes (Chinese) as predictors revealed that a greater number of strokes (or higher visual complexity) for the Chinese characters predicted lower target recall.

Keywords

Paired associates Chinese–English translations Cued recall Episodic memory 

Notes

Author note

We thank Silvia Caamano, Jessica Cantu, Erin Chaniago, Jennifer A. Lara, Nikolas Morgan, Monica Orellana, and Elizabeth Ruiz-Harris for their assistance in collecting data for the study.

References

  1. Balota, D. (1994). Visual word recognition: The journey from features to meaning. In M. A. Gernsbacher (Ed.), Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 303–356). San Diego, CA: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  2. Balota, D. A., Yap, M. J., Cortese, M. J., Hutchison, K. A., Kessler, B., Loftis, B., . . . Treiman, R. (2007). The English Lexicon Project. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 445–459.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193014
  3. Cai, Q., & Brysbaert, M. (2010). SUBTLEX-CH: Chinese word and character frequencies based on film subtitles. PLoS ONE, 5, e10729:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010729 Google Scholar
  4. Carpenter, S. K. (2011). Semantic information activated during retrieval contributes to later retention: Support for the mediator effectiveness hypothesis of the testing effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 1547–1552.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024140 Google Scholar
  5. Chang, Y. N., Hsu, C. H., Tsai, J. L., Chen, C. L., & Lee, C. Y. (2016). A psycholinguistic database for traditional Chinese character naming. Behavior Research Methods, 48, 112–122.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-014-0559-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cho, K. W., Neely, J. H., Brennan, M. K., Vitrano, D., & Crocco, S. (2017). Does testing increase spontaneous mediation in learning semantically related paired associates? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 43, 1768–1778.  https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000414.Google Scholar
  7. Cho, K. W., & Powers, A. (2019). Testing enhances both memorization and conceptual learning of categorical materials. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2019.01.003
  8. Coppens, L. C., Verkoeijen, P. P., & Rikers, R. M. (2011). Learning Adinkra symbols: The effect of testing. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23, 351–357.  https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2011.507188 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cuetos, F., Glez-Nosti, M., Barbón, A., & Brysbaert, M. (2011). SUBTLEX-ESP: Spanish word frequencies based on film subtitles. Psicologica, 32, 133–143.Google Scholar
  10. Eberhard, D. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (Eds.). (2015). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (18th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com Google Scholar
  11. Goldstone, R. L. (1994). The role of similarity in categorization: Providing a groundwork. Cognition, 52, 125–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(94)90065-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grimaldi, P. J., Pyc, M. A., & Rawson, K. A. (2010). Normative multitrial recall performance, metacognitive judgments, and retrieval latencies for Lithuanian–English paired associates. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 634–642.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.42.3.634 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoosain, R. (1991). Psycholinguistic implications for linguistic relativity: A case study of Chinese. Hillsdale, NJ: ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  14. Kang, S. H. (2010). Enhancing visuospatial learning: The benefit of retrieval practice. Memory & Cognition, 38, 1009–1017.  https://doi.org/10.3758/MC.38.8.1009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lau, H., Alger, S. E., & Fishbein, W. (2011). Relational memory: A daytime nap facilitates the abstraction of general concepts. PLoS ONE, 6, e27139.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu, Y., Shu, H., & Li, P. (2007). Word naming and psycholinguistic norms: Chinese. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 192–198.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. MDBG. (2018). CC-CEDICT [Machine-readable dictionary]. Retrieved October 5, 2018, from https://www.mdbg.net/chinese/dictionary?page=radicals
  18. Nelson, T. O., & Dunlosky, J. (1994). Norms of paired-associate recall during multitrial learning of Swahili–English translation equivalents. Memory, 2, 325–335.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09658219408258951 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nishimoto, T., Ueda, T., Miyawaki, K., Une, Y., & Takahashi, M. (2010). A normative set of 98 pairs of nonsensical pictures (droodles). Behavior Research Methods, 42, 685–691.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.42.3.685 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Psychology Software Tools, Inc. (2002). E-Prime 2.0 (Software). Retrieved from www.pstnet.com
  21. Pyc, M. A., & Rawson, K. A. (2010). Why testing improves memory: Mediator effectiveness hypothesis. Science, 330, 335–335.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1191465 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Roediger, H. L., III, & Karpicke, J. D. (2006). Test-enhanced learning: Taking memory tests improves long-term retention. Psychological Science, 17, 249–255.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00012.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Seidenberg, M. S. (1995). Visual word recognition: An overview. In P. Eimas & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of perception and cognition: Language (pp. 137–179). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  24. Sze, W. P., Rickard Liow, S. J., & Yap, M. J. (2014). The Chinese Lexicon Project: A repository of lexical decision behavioral responses for 2,500 Chinese characters. Behavior Research Methods, 46, 263–273.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-013-0355-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tong, X., McBride-Chang, C., Shu, H., & Wong, A. M. (2009). Morphological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and spelling errors: Keys to understanding early Chinese literacy acquisition. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13, 426–452.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10888430903162910 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tse, C.-S., & Yap, M. J. (2018). The role of lexical variables in the visual recognition of two-character Chinese compound words: A megastudy analysis. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 2022–2038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tse, C.-S., Yap, M. J., Chan, Y. L., Sze, W. P., Shaoul, C., & Lin, D. (2017). The Chinese Lexicon Project: A megastudy of lexical decision performance for 25,000+ traditional Chinese two-character compound words. Behavior Research Methods, 49, 1503–1519.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-016-0810-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wartenweiler, D. (2011). Testing effect for visual-symbolic material: Enhancing the learning of Filipino children of low socio-economic status in the public school system. International Journal of Research and Review, 6, 74–93.Google Scholar
  29. Wu, X., Anderson, R. C., Li, W., Wu, X., Li, H., Zhang, J., . . . Gaffney, J. S. (2009). Morphological awareness and Chinese children’s literacy development: An intervention study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13, 26–52.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10888430802631734 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Social SciencesUniversity of Houston–DowntownHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational PsychologyChinese University of Hong KongHong KongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations