Individual differences in reading: Separable effects of reading experience and processing skill

  • Peter C. GordonEmail author
  • Mariah Moore
  • Wonil Choi
  • Renske S. Hoedemaker
  • Matthew W. Lowder


A large-scale eye-tracking study examined individual variability in measures of word recognition during reading among 546 college students, focusing on two established individual-differences measures: the Author Recognition Test (ART) and Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN). ART and RAN were only slightly correlated, suggesting that the two tasks reflect independent cognitive abilities in this large sample of participants. Further, individual variability in ART and RAN scores were related to distinct facets of word-recognition processes. Higher ART scores were associated with increased skipping rates, shorter gaze duration, and reduced effects of word frequency on gaze duration, suggesting that this measure reflects efficiency of basic processes of word recognition during reading. In contrast, faster times on RAN were associated with enhanced foveal-on-parafoveal effects, fewer first-pass regressions, and shorter second-pass reading times, suggesting that this measure reflects efficient coordination of perceptual-motor and attentional processing during reading. These results demonstrate that ART and RAN tasks make independent contributions to predicting variability in word-recognition processes during reading.


Reading Individual differences Eye movements ART RAN 



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Copyright information

© The Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter C. Gordon
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mariah Moore
    • 2
  • Wonil Choi
    • 3
  • Renske S. Hoedemaker
    • 1
  • Matthew W. Lowder
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, CB#3270University of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.Division of Liberal Arts and SciencesGIST CollegeGwangjuSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of RichmondRichmondUSA

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