Structural and Dielectric Properties of Lead-Free Zr-Doped Barium Titanates

  • S. D. Vasawade
  • S. S. Paramaje
  • N. J. Choudhari
  • B. V. Grampurohit
  • M. K. Rendale
  • S. N. Mathad
  • C. S. Hiremath
  • R. B. Pujar


Lead-free BaZr x Ti1–xO3 ferroelectrics (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) were synthesized by conventional double-sintering technique. The structural, morphological, and dielectric properties of BaZr x Ti1–xO3 were investigated as a function of zirconium content x. A single-phase perovskite structure of tetragonal ceramics was identified by XRD. The SEM images of the ferroelectrics exhibit fine grains of varied porosity. All synthesized samples exhibited dielectric dispersion at low frequencies.


ferroelectrics Zr-doped barium titanates porosity dielectric dispersion dielectric loss ac conductivity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Xu, Y., Ferroelectric Materials and Their Applications, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1991, ch. 1–3.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang, Z., Jia, J., Yang, H., Chen, C., Sun, H., Hu, X., and Yang, D., Piezoelectric properties of [Bi0.5(Na0.7K0.25Li0.05)0.5]TiO3−Ba(Ti,Zr)O3 binary system ceramics, J. Mater. Sci., 2008, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1501–1504. doi 10.1007/s10853-007-2382-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kantha, P., Pengpat, K., Jarupoom, P., Intatha, U., Rujijanagul, G., and Tunkasiri, T., Phase formation and electrical properties of BNLT–BZT lead-free piezoelectric ceramic system, Curr. Appl. Phys., 2009, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 460–466. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Petronela, L., Curecheriu, R.F., and Ianculescu, A., Dielectric properties of the BaTi0.85Zr0.15O3 ceramics prepared by different techniques, Process. Appl. Ceram., 2008, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chazona, H. and Kishi, H., dc-Electrical degradation of the BT-based material for multilayer ceramic capacitor with Ni internal electrode: Impedance analysis and microstructure, Appl. Phys., 2001, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 5624–5628. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Morrison, F.D., Coats, A.M., Sindair, D.C., and West, A.R., Charge compensation mechanisms in Ladoped BaTiO3, J. Electroceram., 2001, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 219–232. org/. doi 10.1023/A:1011400630449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mathad, S.N. and Puri, V., Structural and dielectric properties of SrxBa1 − xNb2O6 ferroelectric ceramics, Arch. Phys. Res., 2012, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 106–115.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hennings, D., Schnell, A., and Simon, G.J., Diffuse ferroelectric phase transition in Ba(Ti1 − yZry)O3 ceramics, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 1982, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 539–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yu, Z., Ang, C., Guo, R., and Bhalla, A.S., Piezoelectric and strain properties of Ba(Ti1–xZrx)O3 ceramics, J. Appl. Phys., 2002, vol. 92, pp.1489–1493. doi 10.1063/1.1487435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee, W.H., Groen, W.A., Schreinemacher, H., and Hennings, D., Dysprosium doped dielectric materials for sintering in reducing atmospheres, J. Electroceram., 2000, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 31–36. doi 10.1023/A:1009937310444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mathad, S.N., Jadhav, R.N., Phadtare, V., and Puri, V., Structural and mechanical properties of Sr-doped barium niobate thick films, Int. J. Self-Propag. High-Temp. Synth., 2014, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 145–150. doi 10.3103/S106138621403008XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen, H., Yang, A., Fu, C., Shi, J., Zhan, J., and Leng, W., Microstructure and dielectric properties of BaZrxTi1–xO3 ceramics, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron., 2008, vol. 19, pp. 379–382. doi 10.1007/s10854-007-9348-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Patankar, K.K., Mathe, V.L., Patil, N.R., and Chougule, B.K., Structural analysis, magnetic properties and magnetoelectric effect in piezomagnetic–piezoelectric composites, Mater. Chem. Phys., 2006, vol. 96, pp. 197–200. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mathad, S.N., Jadhav, R.N., Patil, N.D., and Puri, V., Structural and mechanical properties of Sr+2 doped bismuth manganite thick films, Int. J. Self-Propag. High-Temp. Synth., 2013, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 177–181. doi 10.3103/S1061386213040018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wurst, J.C. and Nelson, J.A., Lineal intercept technique for measuring grain size in two-phase polycrystalline ceramics, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 1972, vol. 55, pp. 109–111. doi 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1972.tb11224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hagenmuller, P., Preparative Methods in Solid State Chemistry, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2012, ch. 12.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Koops, C.G., On the dispersion of resistivity and dielectric constant of some semiconductors at audiofrequencies, Phys. Rev., 1951, vol. 83, pp. 121–124. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhi, Y. and Chen, A., Adjustable boron carbonitride nanotubes, Appl. Phys., 2002, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 794–798. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fu, C.L., Cai, W., and Deng, X.L., Microstructure, dielectric and photovoltaic properties of barium zirconate titanate, Proc. 7th Nat. Conf. on Functional Materials and Applications, 2010, pp. 1594–1598.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mathad, S.N., Jadhav, R.N., Pawar, R.P., and Puri, V., Dielectric spectroscopy and microwave conductivity of bismuth strontium manganites at high frequencies, Electron. Mater. Lett., 2013, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 87–93. doi 10.1007/s13391-012-2109-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Patankar, K.K., Dombale, P.D., Mathe, V.L., Patil, S.A., and Patil, R.N., AC conductivity and magnetoelectric effect in MnFe 1.8Cr0.2O4–BaTiO3 composites, Mater. Sci. Eng. B-8, 2001, pp. 53–58. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jadhav, R.N., Mathad, S.N., and Puri, V., Studies on the properties of Ni0.6Cu0.4Mn2O4 NTC ceramic due to Fe doping, Ceram. Int., 2012, vol. 38, pp. 5181–5188. doi 10.1016/j.ceramint.2012.03.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Murthy, V.R.K. and Shobhanadri, A., Dielectric properties of some nickel–zinc ferrites at radio frequency, Phys. Status Solidi A, 1976, vol. 36, pp. 133–135. doi 10.1002/pssa.2210360247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Austin, I.G. and Mott, N.E., Polarons in crystalline and non-crystalline materials, Adv. Phys., 1989, vol. 16, pp. 41–45. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yu, Z., Ang, C., Guo, R., and Bhalla, A.S., Ferroelectric-relaxor behavior of Ba(Ti0.7Zr0.3)O3 ceramics, J. Appl. Phys., 2002, vol. 92, pp. 2655–2659. http://dx. Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ferstein, R.K., Jager, L., and Zenkner, M., Phase transition and dielectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramics containing 10 mol % BaGeO3, Mater. Chem. Phys., 2010, vol. 119, nos. 1–2, pp. 118–122. doi 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2009.08.026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu, X., Deng, X., Liu, K., Cai, W., and Fu, C., Dielectric properties and structures of Zn-doped barium zirconate titanate films, Integr. Ferroelectr., 2014, vol. 150, pp. 66–74. Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kadam, S.L., Kanamadi, C.M., Patankar, K.K., and Chougule, B.K., Dielectric behavior and magneto-electric effect in Ni0.5Co0.5Fe2O4 + Ba0.8Pb0.2TiO3 ME composites, Mater. Lett., 2005, vol. 59, nos. 2–3, pp. 215–219. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kambale, R.C., Shaikh, P.A., Bhosale, C.H., Rajpure, K.Y., and Kolekar, Y.D., The effect of Mn substitution on the magnetic and dielectric properties of cobalt ferrite synthesized by an auto-combustion route, Smart Mater. Struct., 2009, vol. 18, p. 115028. Scholar
  30. 30.
    Popandian, N., Balay, P., and Narayanasamy, A.J., Electrical conductivity and dielectric behaviour of nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 spinel, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 2002, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 3221–3237. Scholar

Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. D. Vasawade
    • 1
  • S. S. Paramaje
    • 1
  • N. J. Choudhari
    • 2
  • B. V. Grampurohit
    • 1
  • M. K. Rendale
    • 3
  • S. N. Mathad
    • 4
  • C. S. Hiremath
    • 1
  • R. B. Pujar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PG Studies in PhysicsP.C. Jabin Science CollegeHubballiIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsManipal Institute of TechnologyManipalIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsKLS Gogte Institute of TechnologyBelagaviIndia
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsKLE Institute of TechnologyHubballiIndia

Personalised recommendations