Steel in Translation

, Volume 47, Issue 12, pp 782–787 | Cite as

Effect of Electron-Beam Treatment on Wear-Resistant Coatings Applied by Electroexplosive Sputtering

  • D. A. Romanov
  • E. V. Protopopov


TiC–Mo, TiC–Ni, TiB2–Mo, and TiB2–Ni coatings applied to the surface of Hardox 450 steel by electroexplosive sputtering are subjected to electron-beam treatment, After electroexplosive application, the surface relief of the coatings includes features such as deformed solidifying microglobules, buildup, microcraters, microcracks, and peeling. After electron-beam treatment, the microglobules, buildup, microcraters, and microcracks disappear from the coating surface. A polycrystalline structure containing cellular elements is formed. After electron-beam treatment, the surface roughness is 1.1–1.2 μm. The thickness of the layers modified by the electron beam in the electroexplosive coatings depends linearly on the surface energy density. The greatest coating thickness is observed when using the TiB2–Mo system; the coating thickness is least for the TiC–Ni system. That may be attributed to the thermophysical properties of the coatings. The following substructures are observed in the coatings: cellular, striated, fragmented, and subgranular. Grains with chaotically distributed dislocations and reticular dislocations are also observed. Electron-beam treatment leads to the formation of composite filled structure over the whole cross section of the remelted layer. The structure formed in this layer is more disperse and uniform than in coatings formed without electron-beam treatment. The inclusions of titanium carbide or titanium diboride in the molybdenum or nickel matrix are 2–4 times smaller than immediately after electroexplosive sputtering. Within the molybdenum or nickel grains and at their boundaries, rounded particles of secondary phase (titanium carbide or titanium diboride) are observed. They may be divided into two classes by size: particles of the initial powder (80–150 nm) that have not dissolved on irradiation; and particles formed on solidification of the melt (10–15 nm). In the electroexplosive powder coatings, the structure is mainly formed by dynamic rotation of the sprayed particles, which form a vertical structure both in the coating and in the upper layers of the substrate. The coatings have excellent operational properties: nano- and microhardness, elastic modulus of the first kind, and wear resistance in dry slipping friction.


electroexplosive sputtering electron-beam treatment coating structure coating properties titanium carbide titanium diboride nickel molybdenum wear resistance 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Vopneruk, A.A., Valiev, R.M., Vedishchev, Yu.G., Shak, A.V., Kuptsov, S.G., Fominykh, M.V., Mukhinov, D.V., and Ivanov, A.V., Abrasive wear resistance of coatings applied by the method of high-speed flame spraying, Izv. Samar. Nauch. Tsentra, Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2010, vol. 12, no. 1 (2), pp. 317–320.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ibragimov, A.R., Ilinkova, T.A., Shafigullin, L.N., and Saifutdinov, A.I., Investigation of mechanical properties of thermal coatings obtained during plasma spraying of powder zirconium dioxide, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 2017, vol. 789, p. 012022.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Savková, J., Houdková, Š., and Kašparová, M., High temperature tribological properties of the HVOF sprayed TiC-based coatings, Proc. 21st Int. Conf. on Metallurgy and Materials “Metal–2012,” Brno, Czech Republic, May 23–25, 2012, Brno, 2012.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guo, X., Niu, Y., Huang, L., Ji, H., and Zheng, X., Microstructure and tribological property of TiC–Mo coating prepared by vacuum plasma spraying, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2012, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1083–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Da Cunha, C.A., de Lima, N.B., Martinelli, J.R., de Almeida Bressiani, A.H., Fernando Padial, A.G., and Ramanathan, L.V., Microstructure and mechanical properties of thermal sprayed nanostructured Cr3C2–Ni20Cr coatings, Mater. Res., 2008, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 137–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Serek, A. and Budniok, A., Electrodeposition and thermal treatment of nickel layers containing titanium, J. Alloys Compd., 2003, vol. 352, nos. 1–2, pp. 290–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Panek, J. and Budniok, A., Production and electrochemical characterization of Ni-based composite coatings containing titanium, vanadium or molybdenum powders, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2007, vol. 201, no. 14, pp. 6478–6483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Strzeciwilk, D., Wokulski, Z., and Tkacz, P., Microstructure of TiC crystals obtained from high temperature nickel solution, J. Alloys Compd., 2003, vol. 350, nos. 1–2, pp. 256–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arya, A., Dey, G.K., Vasudevan, V.K., et al., Effect of chromium addition on the ordering behavior of Ni–Mo alloy: experimental results vs. electronic structure calculations, Acta Mater., 2002, vol. 50, no. 13, pp. 3301–3315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lemster, K., Graule, T., and Kuebler, J., Processing and microstructure of metal matrix composites prepared by pressureless Ti-activated infiltration using Febase and Ni-base alloys, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2005, vol. 393, no. 1–2, pp. 229–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhao, Y., Jiang, C., Xu, Z., Cai, F., Zhang, Z., and Fu, P., Microstructure and corrosion behavior of Ti nanoparticles reinforced Ni–Ti composite coatings by electrodeposition, Mater. Des., 2015, vol. 85, pp. 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chang, C.H., Jeng, M.C., Su, C.Y., and Huang, T.S., A study of wear and corrosion resistance of arc-sprayed Ni–Ti composite coatings, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2011, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1278–1285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Surzhenkov, A., Antonov, M., Goljandin, D., Vilgo, T., Mikli, V., Viljus, M., Latokartano, J., and Kulu, P., Sliding wear of TiC–NiMo and Cr3C2–Ni cermet particles reinforced FeCrSiB matrix HVOF sprayed coatings, Est. J. Eng., 2013, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 203–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Surzhenkov, A., Antonov, M., Goljandin, D., Kulu, P., Viljus, M., Traksmaa, R., and Mere, A., High-temperature erosion of Fe-based coatings reinforced with cermet particles, Surf. Eng., 2016, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 624–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nikolenko, S.V., Syui, N.A., and Burkov, A.A., Investigation of microstructure and properties of coatings on steel 45 deposited by electro-spark deposition by TiC–Ni–Mo electrodes, Tsvetn. Met., 2017, no. 4, pp. 69–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Romanov, D.A., Goncharova, E.N., Budovskikh, E.A., Gromov, V.E., Ivanov, Yu.F., and Teresov, A.D., Elemental and phase composition of TiB2–Mo coating sprayed on a steel by electro-explosive method, Inorg. Mater.: Appl. Res., 2017, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 23–427.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Romanov, D.A., Goncharova, E.N., Budovskikh, E.A., et al., Structure of electroexplosive TiC–Ni composite coatings on steel after electron-beam treatment, Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.), 2016, no. 11, pp. 1064–1071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Romanov, D.A., Goncharova, E.N., Budovskikh, E.A., Gromov, V.E., Ivanov, Yu.F., and Teresov, A.D., Structure of electroexplosive TiB2–Ni composite coatings after electron beam processing, Inorg. Mater.: Appl. Res., 2015, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 536–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Romanov, D.A., Olesyuk, O.V., Budovskikh, E.A., and Gromov, V.E., RF Patent 2518037, Byull. Izobret., 2014, no.16.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Koval’, N.N. and Ivanov, Yu.F., Nanostructuring of surfaces of metalloceramic and ceramic materials by electron-beams, Russ. Phys. J., 2008, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 505–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Siberian State Industrial UniversityNovokuznetskRussia

Personalised recommendations