Water Extracts as Criterion of Assessment of Geochemical Conditions on a Monolithic Soil–Geochemical Catena in the Upper Reaches of the Klyaz’ma River


The composition of water-soluble macro- and microelements and anions has been studied in soils formed within a monolithic soil–geochemical catena. It has been shown that the carbon and nitrogen contents regularly increase from eluvial to accumulative landscapes parallel to their hydromorphism. The distribution of water-soluble forms of macro- and microelements is related to bioaccumulative processes and features of eluvial–illuvial differentiation of soils. The margins of the watershed depression are characterized by the combination of eluvial–illuvial differentiation and intensive lateral removal of elements in spring, which determines the maximal leaching of the top soil horizons. The data of the cluster analysis confirm that there is a correlation of soil genesis and location in the system of geochemical catena with the composition of water extracts.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.


  1. 1

    Amel’yanchik, O.A. and Vorob’eva, L.A., Acid components of water and salt extracts from podzolic soils, Eurasian Soil Sci., 2003, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 266–277.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Aparin, B.F. and Savel’eva, T.S., Intersoil drain as a factor for forming soil cover structure, Pochvovedenie, 1993, no. 9.

  3. 3

    Arinushkina, E.V., Rukovodstvo po khimicheskomu analizu pochv (Handbook on Soils Chemical Analysis), Moscow, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Vorob’eva, L.A. and Rudakova, T.A., Some chemical elements concentration in natural water solutions, Pochvovedenie, 1980, no. 3.

  5. 5

    Zaidel’man, F.R., Dzizenko, N.N., and Cherkas, S.M., The influence of gleyzation on the chemical composition of the lysimetric water and the physicochemical properties of the parent rocks: a model experiment, Eurasian Soil Sci., 2014, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1187–1198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Kaurichev, I.S., Karpukhin, A.I., and Stepanova, L.P., Nature of water soluble iron-organic soil compounds of taiga forest zone, Pochvovedenie, 1977, no. 12.

  7. 7

    Lutsenko, T.N., Arzhanova, V.S., and Bratskaya, S.Yu., Dissolved organic matter in lysimetric water of mountain forest soils in the Southern Sikhote Alin, Eurasian Soil Sci., 2014, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 581–591.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Minkin, M.B., Mulyar, I.A., and Mulyar, A.I., Ultrasonic method for analyzing water extract, Pochvovedenie, 1985, no. 3.

  9. 9

    Pervova, N.E., Carbon content of water soluble matters in lyzimetric waters and soil solutions under different types of forests, Pochvovedenie, 1978, no. 11.

  10. 10

    Sudnitsyn, I.I., Prospects for using lysimeters in the study of soil processes, Eurasian Soil Sci., 2008, vol. 41, no. 10, p. 1135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Tolpeshta, I.I., Sokolova, T.A., and Sizemskaya, M.L., Ion activities and the electric conductivity of water extracts from virgin and ameliorated soils of the Dzhanybek Research Station, Eurasian Soil Sci., 2000, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1201–1213.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Shein, E.V., Kokoreva, A.A., Gorbatov, V.S., et al., Sensitivity assessment, adjustment, and comparison of mathematical models describing the migration of pesticides in soil using lysimetric data, Eurasian Soil Sci., 2009, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 769–778.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Agnelli, A., Cocco, S., Massaccesi, L., et al., Features of skeleton water-extractable fines from different acidic soils, Geoderma, 2017, vol. 289, pp. 82–96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Corvasce, M., Zsolnay, A., D’Orazio, V., et al., Characterization of water extractable organic matter in a deep soil profile, Chemosphere, 2006, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 1583–1590.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    He, Y., de Sutter, T., Prunty, L., et al., Evaluation of 1:5 soil to water extract electrical conductivity methods, Geoderma, 2012, vol. 185–186, pp. 12–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Li, J., Kosugi, T., Riya, Sh., et al., Investigations of water-extractability of As in excavated urban soils using sequential leaching tests: effect of testing parameters, J. Environ. Manag., 2018, vol. 217, pp. 297–304.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Nguyen, T.-T. and Marschner, P., Retention and loss of water extractable carbon in soils: effect of clay properties, Sci. Total Environ., 2014, vol. 470–471, pp. 400–406.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    del Pino, J.N., Almenar, I.D., Rodriguez, A.R., et al., Analysis of the 1:5 soil:water extract in burnt soils to evaluate fire severity, Catena, 2008, vol. 74, no. 3.

  19. 19

    Schneider, K.D., Voroney, R.P., Lynch, D.H., et al., Microbially-mediated P fluxes in calcareous soils as a function of water-extractable phosphate, Soil Biol. Biochem., 2017, vol. 106, pp. 51–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Vergnoux, A., Di Rocco, R., Domeizel, M., et al., Effects of forest fires on water extractable organic matter and humic substances from Mediterranean soils: UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy approaches, Geoderma, 2011, vol. 160, nos. 3–4, pp. 434–443.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to L. G. Bogatyrev.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interests. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.Statement on the welfare of humans or animals. This article does not contain any studies involving animals performed by any of the authors.

Additional information

Translated by I. Bel’chenko

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bogatyrev, L.G., Benediktova, A.I., Telesnina, V.M. et al. Water Extracts as Criterion of Assessment of Geochemical Conditions on a Monolithic Soil–Geochemical Catena in the Upper Reaches of the Klyaz’ma River. Moscow Univ. Soil Sci. Bull. 75, 159–167 (2020). https://doi.org/10.3103/S014768742004002X

Download citation


  • water extract
  • water-soluble macroelements
  • microelements
  • geochemical landscape
  • southern taiga zone
  • soddy–podzolic soils