Moscow University Physics Bulletin

, Volume 72, Issue 6, pp 647–652 | Cite as

Relative Attenuation and Beam Softening Study with Flattening Filter Volume Reduction: Monte Carlo Study

  • Mohamed Bencheikh
  • Abdelmajid Maghnouj
  • Jaouad Tajmouati
Biophysics and Medical Physics


The flattening filter (FF) volume reduction increases the clinical photons for deep tumor treatment. The beam softening determination is crucial for flattening filter improvement in geometry and materials. Determination and understanding the photon beam properties using material and geometry of a beam modifier is very important for dosimetry improvement in radiotherapy department and also for patient life quality development. This Monte Carlo study aims to investigate the relative attenuation and associated beam softening due to flattening filter volume reduction. The FF volume was reduced by 10, 20, and 30% of the initial volume data provided by the manufacturer. The relative attenuation and beam softening coefficients increased with FF volume reduction more near the beam central axis than the beam edge. We have illustrated that relative photon beam softening coefficient v was more stable than the coefficient u as a function of offaxis distance and with FF volume reduction. For increasing the photon fluence and dose delivered inside the phantom volume as mentioned in IAEA protocols, the FF volume should be reduced more near the FF top region than the FF edge region. Our work can be a basic investigation that will be used in improvement for the future linac configuration in terms of photon beam softening for material, geometry, and volume that were used in beam modifiers as a flattening filter.


flattening filter volume Monte Carlo simulation photon beam softening BEAMnrc code BEAMDP code 


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Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Bencheikh
    • 1
  • Abdelmajid Maghnouj
    • 1
  • Jaouad Tajmouati
    • 1
  1. 1.LISTA Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El-MahrazUniversity of Sidi Mohamed Ben AbdellahFezMorocco

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