Advertisement

Effects of PEG, PVP and SDS on the Properties of Chromium Coatings Prepared from Trivalent Chromium Chloride Baths Using Experimental Design and Multi-Response Optimisation

  • T. Derabla
  • A. M. AffouneEmail author
  • M. L. Chelaghmia
Article

Abstract

The effects of three organic additives polyethylene glycol (PEG), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), on the electrodeposition of chromium from trivalent chromium chloride baths were investigated. The experiments were performed based on a two-level factorial design. The effects of electrolysis parameters: pH, temperature, and current density, as well as the concentrations of the three additives, on the thickness, roughness, and corrosion current density of the chromium deposited layers were analysed. Statistical results revealed that all response models are significant. It was found that the contributions of factors in thickness and interactions in roughness and the corrosion current density are more important. The main and interaction effect studies showed that pH and current density have significant effects on all of the responses, whereas the additive concentration only has an effect on the corrosion current density, especially in the presence of PVP and PEG. The interactions of pH with the current density and the temperature with current density have the most important effects on all responses. Optimisation and technical, economic, and environmental investigations revealed that PEG is the most suitable additive for usage in technical and decorative processes. PVP and SDS could substitute PEG for decorative and technical processes, respectively.

Keywords:

electrodeposition trivalent chromium organic additives experimental design chromium coatings roughness corrosion resistance thickness 

Notes

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    El-Sharif, M., McDougall, J., and Chisholm, C.U., Trans. Inst. Met. Finish., 1999, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 139–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zeng, Z., Wang, L., Liang, A., and Zhang, J., Electrochim. Acta, 2006, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 1366–1373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zeng, Z. and Zhang, J., Tribol. Lett., 2008, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 107–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bayramoglu, M., Onat, B., and Geren, N., J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2008, vol. 203, nos. 1–3, pp. 277–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mohan, U.D. and Pittman, C.U., Jr., J. Hazard. Mater., 2006, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 762–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zeng, Z., Sun, Y., and Zhang, J., Electrochem. Commun., 2009, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 331–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Saravanan, G. and Mohan, S., J. Appl. Electrochem., 2010, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoque, A., Haque, M.E., Islam, M., Islam, M.S., et al., Int. J. Innovation Sci. Math., 2015, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 124–130.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lu, C.-E., Pu, N.-W., Hou, K.-H., Tseng, C.-C., et al., Appl. Surf. Sci., 2013, vol. 282, pp. 544–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Katirci, R., Int. J. Surf. Sci. Eng., 2016, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Phuong, N.V., Kwon, S.C., Lee, J.Y., Lee, J.H., et al., Surf. Coat. Technol., 2012, vol. 206, no. 21, pp. 4349–4355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Protsenko, V.S., Danilov, F.I., Gordiienko, V.O., Kwon, S.C., et al., Thin Solid Films, 2011, vol. 520, no. 1, pp. 380–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Protsenko, V., Gordiienko, V., Butyrina, T., Vasil’eva, E., et al., Turk. J. Chem., 2014, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 50–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li, L., Wang, Z., Wang, M.-Y., and Zhang, Y., Int. J. Miner., Metall. Mater., 2013, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 902–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    He, X.K., Qiu, G.Z., Chen, B.Z., Zhou, N.B., et al., Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 2007, vol. 17, pp. s685–s691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Protsenko, V.S., Kityk, A.A., and Danilov, F.I., Surf. Eng. Appl. Electrochem., 2014, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 384–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ohgai, T., Tanaka, Y., and Fujimaru, T., J. Appl. Electrochem., 2012, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 893–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xu, L., Du, J., Ge, S., He, N., et al., J. Appl. Electrochem., 2009, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 713–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Adelkhani, H. and Arshadi, M.R., J. Alloys Compd., 2009, vol. 476, no. 1, pp. 234–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Song, Y.B. and Chin, D.-T., Electrochim. Acta, 2002, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 349–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kwon, S.C., Kim, M., Park, S.U., Kim, D.Y., et al., Surf. Coat. Technol., 2004, vol. 183, no. 2, pp. 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sziraki, L., Kuzmann, E., Papp, K., Chisholm, C.U., et al., Mater. Chem. Phys., 2012, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 1092–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liang, A. and Zhang, J., Surf. Coat. Technol., 2012, vol. 206, no. 17, pp. 3614–3618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ghaziof, S., Golozar, M.A., and Raeissi, K., J. Alloys Compd., 2010, vol. 496, no. 1, pp. 164–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Huang, C.A., Liu, Y.W., and Chuang, C.H., Thin Solid Films, 2009, vol. 517, no. 17, pp. 4902–4904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Danilov, F.I., Protsenko, V.S., Gordiienko, V.O., Baskevich, A.S., et al., Prot. Met. Phys. Chem. Surf., 2012, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 328–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Protsenko, V.S., Danilov, F.I., Gordiienko, V.O., Baskevich, A.S., et al., Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 2012, vol. 31, pp. 281–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Saravanan, G., and Mohan, S., J. Appl. Electrochem., 2009, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1393–1397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Saravanan, G. and Mohan, S., Corros. Sci., 2009, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lin, K.-L., Hsu, C.-J, Hsu, I.-M., and Chang, J.-T., J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 1992, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 359–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hordienko, V.O., Protsenko, V.S., Kwon, S.C., Lee, J.-Y., et al., Mater. Sci., 2011, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 647–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li, B., Lin, A., and Gan, F., Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006, vol. 201, no. 6, pp. 2578–2586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Suarez, O.J., Olaya, J.J., and Rodil, S., Rev. Mex. Ing. Quim., 2013, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 129–141.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Danilov, F.I., Protsenko, V.S., Gordiienko, V.O., Kwon, S.C., et al., Appl. Surf. Sci., 2011, vol. 257, no. 18, pp. 8048–8053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Protsenko, V.S. and Danilov, F.I., Clean Technol. Environ. Policy, 2014, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1201–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Poroch-Seritan, M., Cretescu, I., Cojocaru, C., Amariei, S., et al., Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 2015, vol. 96, pp. 138–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Poroch-Seritan, M., Gutt, S., Gutt, G., Cretescu, I., et al., Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 2011, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 136–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sheu, H.H., Lu, C.E., Lee, H.B., Pu, N.W., Wu, P.F., Hsieh, S.H., and Ger, M.D., J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 2016, vol. 59, pp. 496–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yao, Y., Wei, Q., Sun, M., Chen, Y., et al., RSC Adv., 2013, vol. 3, pp. 13131–13136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Boiadjieva, Tz., Kovacheva, D., Lyutov, L., and Monev, M., J. Appl. Electrochem., 2008, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1435–1443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Saravanan, G., Studies on the electrodeposition of chromium and its alloy from ecofriendly Cr(III) electrolytes and room temperature ionic liquids-RTIL, PhD Thesis, Karaikudi: Central Electrochem. Res. Inst., 2011.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Etminanfar, M.R. and Heydarzadeh Sohi, M., Thin Solid Films, 2012, vol. 520, no. 16, pp. 5322–5327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Demirci, U.B., J. Power Sources, 2007, vol. 169, no. 2, pp. 239–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nacef, M. and Affoune, A.M., Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2011, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 4208–4219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Analyses Industrielles et Génie des Matériaux, Département de Génie des Procédés, Faculté des Sciences et de la TechnologieGuelmaAlgeria

Personalised recommendations