Advertisement

Russian Agricultural Sciences

, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 426–433 | Cite as

Effects of Root-Zone Temperature on Growth, Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics and Chlorophyll Content of Greenhouse Pepper Plants Grown under Cold Stress in Southern China

  • M. O. Odhiambo
  • X. C. Wang
  • P. I. J. de Antonio
  • Y. Y. Shi
  • B. Zhao
Crop Production
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

In Southern China, plants are usually exposed to cold stress during winter in an unheated greenhouse, but due to the high energy consumption and costs, most of the greenhouses remain unheated. In an attempt to find a simple and affordable solution to this problem, this study was undertaken. In this research, Capsicum frutescens L. plants were studied to investigate the effect of different root zone temperatures on its growth and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics under cold stress. The plants were cultivated under cold stress conditions in a root zone temperature (RZT) control system where the roots were subjected to four different root-zone temperature treatments of 20°C-T20, 25°C-T25, 45°C-T45 and a control CK group. Growth characteristics studied included plant height, stem diameter, plant width, root length, biomass accumulation. Whilst fluorescence characteristics investigated were chlorophyll fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm, photochemical quenching (qL), efficiency of Photosystem II (Y[II]) and electron transport rate (ETR). Chlorophyll content in the leaves of the plants was also investigated. The findings demonstrated that plants in the CK group suffered a detrimental effect on the growth characteristics registering the lowest values in the measured variables. Conversely, the highest values were observed in T25 RZT treatment. In fluorescence characteristics, values of Fv/Fm were maintained at between 0.8 and 0.83 but also suffered a photo-inhibitory depression in CK and T45 RZT treatments to Fv/Fm values of <0.79. This depicted that root zone heating protected the PS II of these plants from photoinactivation induced by cold stress. Similar trends were seen in the qL, Y[II], ETR values with the T20 and T25 treatments registering the highest values. Chlorophyll content was significantly higher in the leaves of the plants in the T20 and T25 group. The lowest chlorophyll content was recorded in the CK group. Plants in all the treatments accumulated more biomass in the shoot than in the roots as depicted by a significantly lower shoot to root ratio values with the exception of those in the CK group. The findings of this study suggest that pepper plants can successfully be grown in an unheated greenhouse in the Yangtze River Delta area of Southern China during winter by heating the root zone of the plants to a RZT value of 25°C, thereby providing a simple, affordable and cost-effective technique.

Keywords

Capsicum frutescens L. cold stress root zone temperature root zone heating growth characteristics chlorophyll fluorescence Yangtze River Delta area of Southern China 

Abbreviations

CF

chlorophyll fluorescence

ETR

electron transfer rate

NPQ

non-photochemical fluorescence quenching PSII—photosystem II

qL

coefficients of photochemical fluorescence quenching

RZT

root zone temperature

Y[II]

effective photochemical quantum yield of PS II

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Thakur, P. and Nayyar, H., Facing the cold stress by plants in the changing environment: Sensing, signaling, and defending mechanisms, in Plant Acclimation to Environmental Stress, Springer, 2013, pp. 29–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Van Ploeg, D. and Heuvelink, E., Influence of suboptimal temperature on tomato growth and yield: A review, J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol., 2005, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 652–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vernieri, P., et al., How the roots contribute to the ability of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to cope with chilling— induced water stress, J. Exp. Bot., 2001, vol. 52, no. 364, pp. 2199–2206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Su, L.Y., et al., Application of electric carbon crystal warming boards for seedling culture of cucumber in a greenhouse during winter, J. China Agric. Univ., 2014, no. 6, pp. 126–133.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    He, J., et al., Effects of root-zone temperature on photosynthesis, productivity and nutritional quality of aeroponically grown salad rocket (Eruca sativa) vegetable, Am. J. Plant Sci., 2016, vol. 7, no. 14, p. 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hussain, S. and Maqsood, M.A., Root zone temperature influences nutrient accumulation and use in maize, Pak. J. Bot., 2011, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 1551–1556.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nada, K., He, L.-X., and Tachibana, S., Impaired photosynthesis in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) by high root-zone temperature involves ABA-induced stomatal closure and reduction in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity, J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 2003, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 504–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li, X., et al., Effects of light-emitting diode supplementary lighting on the winter growth of greenhouse plants in the Yangtze River Delta of China, Bot. Stud., 2016, vol. 57, no. 1, p.2.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gang, X., et al., Effects of Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) on growth and photosynthesis of pepper plants under low temperature stress, Jiangsu J. Agric. Sci., 2011, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 612–616.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ting, H., et al., Rhizosphere of different temperatures on cucumber seedlings growth, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of impact, Shanghai Agric. J., 2015, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 45–50.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    You, G.C. and Fen, Y., The effect of root temperature on the growth of pepper seedling stage, J. Jiangxi Agric. Univ., 2003, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 30–32.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Economakois, C. and Krulji, L., Effect of root-zone warming on strawberry plants grown with nutrient film technique (NFT), International Symposium on Growing Media and Hydroponics, 1999, vol.548.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    He, J., Qin, L., and Lee, S., Root-zone CO2 and rootzone temperature effects on photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism of aeroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in the tropics, Photosynthetica, 2013, vol. 3, no. 51, pp. 330–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Du, Y. and Tachibana, S., Effect of supraoptimal root temperature on the growth, root respiration and sugar content of cucumber plants, Sci. Hortic., 1994, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 289–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    He, J., Root growth, morphological and physiological characteristics of subtropical and temperate vegetable crops grown in the tropics under different root-zone temperature, in Plant Growth, InTech, 2016.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Daskalaki, A. and Burrage, S., The effect of root zone temperature on the growth and root anatomy of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), II International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops, 1996, vol.449.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee, J., et al., Effects of root zone warming on rhizosphere temperature and growth of greenhouses-grown cucumbers, J. Korean Soc. Hortic. Sci., 2003.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    He, J., Tan, L., and Lee, S., Root-zone temperature effects on photosynthesis, 14 C-photoassimilate partitioning and growth of temperate lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. ‘Panama’) in the tropics, Photosynthetica, 2009, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Björkman, O. and Demmig, B., Photon yield of O2 evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics at 77 K among vascular plants of diverse origins, Planta, 1987, vol. 170, no. 4, pp. 489–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Guidi, L. and Degl’Innocenti, E., Imaging of chlorophyll a fluorescence: A tool to study abiotic stress in plants, in Abiotic Stress in Plants-Mechanisms and Adaptations, InTech, 2011.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Müller, P., Li, X.-P., and Niyogi, K.K., Non-photochemical quenching. A response to excess light energy, Plant Physiol., 2001, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 1558–1566.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miedema, P., The effects of low temperature on Zea mays, in Advances in Agronomy, Elsevier, 1982, pp. 93–128.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Seely, G., in The Chlorophylls, Vernon, L.P. and Seely, G.R., Eds., New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1966.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dordas, C.A. and Sioulas, C., Safflower yield, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency response to nitrogen fertilization under rainfed conditions, Ind. Crops Prod., 2008, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vernon, L.P. and Seely, G.R., The Chlorophylls, Academic Press, 2014.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. O. Odhiambo
    • 1
  • X. C. Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. I. J. de Antonio
    • 1
  • Y. Y. Shi
    • 1
  • B. Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.College of EngineeringNanjing Agricultural University, Pukou DistrictNanjingChina
  2. 2.Jiangsu Province Engineering Laboratory for Modern Intelligent Facilities in Agricultural Technology and Equipment, Pukou DistrictNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations