Comparative Study of the Structural-Phase State and Mechanical Properties of Ni–Cr(X) and Fe–Cr(X) Heat-Resistant Alloys Fabricated by Additive Technologies
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Comparative studies of peculiarities of the formation, thermal stability of the structure, and mechanical properties of heat-resistant alloys based on iron and nickel and fabricated using additive technologies (ATs) by laser metal deposition and selective laser melting are performed. It is established that a cellular structure is formed in alloys fabricated by the laser metal deposition and small pores up to 200 nm in size are present. The structure of alloys fabricated by selective laser melting contains elements with a globular and lamellar morphology and incompletely melted regions, as well as large pores on the order of 5 μm in size. The possibility of manifestation of the nanophase hardening effect due to the presence of nanodimensional particles of chromium silicides is shown. A comparative analysis of mechanical properties of materials under study is performed. It is shown that iron-based alloys possess higher strength and lower ductility when compared with nickel alloys. All studied samples fabricated by selective laser melting have higher strength characteristics when compared with alloys fabricated by laser metal deposition. Short-term annealing at 900–1000°C for 1 h noticeably decreases both strength and plasticity in tensile and compression tests at room and elevated temperatures. Alloys based on iron and nickel fabricated by laser metal deposition and subjected to compression tests at t = 900°C have similar strength characteristics. In contrast with iron-based alloys, additional annealing of the nickel-based AT alloy almost does not decrease its strength characteristics.
This study was supported by the Program of Basic Research of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences no. 32 “Nanostructures: Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Foundations of Technologies” and the Thematic Map of Basic Scientific Research no. 0089-2015-0222 of the Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
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