Russian Journal of Non-Ferrous Metals

, Volume 59, Issue 6, pp 685–692 | Cite as

Comparative Study of the Structural-Phase State and Mechanical Properties of Ni–Cr(X) and Fe–Cr(X) Heat-Resistant Alloys Fabricated by Additive Technologies

  • Yu. R. KolobovEmail author
  • A. N. ProkhorovEmail author
  • S. S. ManokhinEmail author
  • A. Yu. Tokmacheva-KolobovaEmail author
  • D. I. SerebryakovEmail author
  • V. V. Afanasiev


Comparative studies of peculiarities of the formation, thermal stability of the structure, and mechanical properties of heat-resistant alloys based on iron and nickel and fabricated using additive technologies (ATs) by laser metal deposition and selective laser melting are performed. It is established that a cellular structure is formed in alloys fabricated by the laser metal deposition and small pores up to 200 nm in size are present. The structure of alloys fabricated by selective laser melting contains elements with a globular and lamellar morphology and incompletely melted regions, as well as large pores on the order of 5 μm in size. The possibility of manifestation of the nanophase hardening effect due to the presence of nanodimensional particles of chromium silicides is shown. A comparative analysis of mechanical properties of materials under study is performed. It is shown that iron-based alloys possess higher strength and lower ductility when compared with nickel alloys. All studied samples fabricated by selective laser melting have higher strength characteristics when compared with alloys fabricated by laser metal deposition. Short-term annealing at 900–1000°C for 1 h noticeably decreases both strength and plasticity in tensile and compression tests at room and elevated temperatures. Alloys based on iron and nickel fabricated by laser metal deposition and subjected to compression tests at t = 900°C have similar strength characteristics. In contrast with iron-based alloys, additional annealing of the nickel-based AT alloy almost does not decrease its strength characteristics.

Keywords:  heat-resistant alloys additive technologies structure phase composition 



This study was supported by the Program of Basic Research of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences no. 32 “Nanostructures: Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Foundations of Technologies” and the Thematic Map of Basic Scientific Research no. 0089-2015-0222 of the Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences.


  1. 1.
    Kolobov, Yu.R., Kablov, E.N., Kozlov, E.V., Koneva, N.A., Povarova, K.B., Grabovetckaya, G.P., Buntushkin, V.P., Bazyleva, O.A., Muboyadzhyan, S.A., and Budinovskii, S.A., Struktura i svoistva intermetallidnykh materialov s nanofaznym uprochneniem (Structure and Properties of Intermetallic Materials with Nanophase Strengthening), Moscow: MISiS, 2008.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kolobov, Yu.R., Diffuzionno-kontroliruemye protcessy na granitcakh zeren i plastichnost metallicheskikh polikristallov (Diffusion-Controlled Processes at Grain Boundaries and Plasticity of Metal Polycrystals), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1998.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lomberg, B.S., Ovsepian, S.V., Bakradze, M.M., and Mazalov, I.S., High-temperature heat resistant nickel alloys for gas turbine engine parts, in: Aviatcionnye materialy i tekhnologii: Yubileinyi nauchno-tekhnicheskii sbornik (Aviation Materials and Technologies. Jubilee Sci.-and-Tech. Collection), Kablov E.N., Ed., Moscow: VIAM, 2012. pp. 52–57.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kablov, E.N., Additive technologies—a dominant feature of the national technology initiative, Intel. Tekhnol., 2015, no. 2, pp. 52–55.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lewandowski, J.J. and Seifi, M., Metal additive manufacturing: A review of mechanical Properties, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res., 2016, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 151–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smith, D.H., Bicknell, J., Jorgensen, L., Patterson, B.M., Cordes, N.L., Tsukrov, I., and Knezevic, M., Microstructure and mechanical behavior of direct metal laser sintered Inconel alloy 718, Mater. Charact., 2016, vol. 113, pp. 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wu, M.W., Lai, P.H., and Chen, J.K., Anisotropy in the impact toughness of selective laser melted Ti–6Al–4V alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, vol. 650, pp. 295–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhao, X., Chen, J., Lin, X., and Huang, W., Study on microstructure and mechanical properties of laser rapid forming Inconel 718, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2008, vol. 478, pp. 119–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gribbin, S., Bicknell, J., Jorgensen, L., Tsukrov, I., and Knezevic, M., Low cycle fatigue behavior of direct metal laser sintered Inconel alloy 718, Int. J. Fatigue, 2016, vol. 93, pp. 156–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sames, W.J., List, F.A., Pannala, S., Dehoff, R.R., and Babu, S.S., The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing, Int. Mater. Rev., 2016, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 315–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wu, M.W. and Lai, P.H., The positive effect of hot isostatic pressing on improving the anisotropies of bending and impact properties in selective laser melted Ti–6Al–4V alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, vol. 658, pp. 429–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Qiu, C., Panwisawas, C., Ward, M., Basoalto, H.C., Brooks, J.W., and Attallah, M.M., On the role of melt f low into the surface structure and porosity development during selective laser melting, Acta Mater., 2015, vol. 96, pp. 72–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cunningham, R., Narra, S.P., Ozturk, T., Beuth, J., and Rollett, A.D., Evaluating the effect of processing parameters on porosity in electron beam melted Ti–6Al–4V via synchrotron X-ray microtomography, JOM, 2016, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 765–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Konecna, R., Nicoletto, G., Kunz, L., and Baca, A., Microstructure and directional fatigue behavior of Inconel 718 produced by selective laser melting, Proced. Struct. Integr., 2016, vol. 2, pp. 2381–2388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Scott-Emuakpor, O., Schwartz, J., George, T., Holycross, C., Cross, C., and Slater, J., Bending fatigue life characterisation of direct metal laser sintering nickel alloy 718, Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 2015, vol. 38, pp. 1105–1117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tillmann, W., Schaak, C., Nellesen, J., Schaper, M., Aydinöz, M.E., and Niendorf, T., Functional encapsulation of laser melted Inconel 718 by Arc-PVD and HVOF for post compacting by hot isostatic pressing, Powder Metall., 2015, vol. 58, pp. 259–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aydinöz, M.E., Brenne, F., Schaper, M., Schaak, C., Tillmann, W., Nellesen, J., and Niendorf, T., On the microstructural and mechanical properties of post-treated additively manufactured Inconel 718 superalloy under quasi-static and cyclic loading, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, vol. 669, pp. 246–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bambach, M., Sizova, I., Silze, F., and Schnick, M., Hot workability and microstructure evolution of the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 produced by laser metal deposition, J. Alloys Compd., 2018, vol. 740, pp. 278–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lukina E.A., Bazaleeva K.O., Petrushin N.V., Zai’tcev D.V. Study of formation regularities of the grain structure of the Ni–Al–W–Co–Nb–Cr–Ti–Mo alloy system synthesized by the SLS method depending on parameters of the laser beam, heat treatment, and HIP, in: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-tekhnicheskoi konferentsii “Beam Technologies and Laser Application” (Proc. Inter. Sci. and Tech. Conf. “Beam Technologies and Laser Application”), St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg Polytekh. Univ., 2016, pp. 307–315.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bazaleeva, K.O., TCvetkova, E.V., and Balakirev, E.V., Processes of recrystallization of the austenitic alloy fabricated by selective laser melting, Vestn. MGTU im. N.E. Baumana. Ser. Mashinostr., 2016, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 117–127.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bazaleeva, K.O., Tsvetkova, E.V., Smurov, I.Yu., Yadroitcev, I.A., Bazaleev, E.V., and Kostyuk, Yu.G., Cellular structure in austenitic alloys fabricated by selective laser melting, Perspekt. Mater., 2014, no. 3, pp. 55–62.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of SciencesChernogolovkaRussia
  2. 2.Belgorod State National Research UniversityBelgorodRussia
  3. 3.Moscow State UniverisityMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM)MoscowRussia
  5. 5.National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”MoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations