Advertisement

Optical Memory and Neural Networks

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 260–271 | Cite as

Neural Networks Based Sorting Order for Reversible Data Hiding in Pixel Prediction Error

  • A. RasmiEmail author
  • B. Arunkumar
Article
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

This paper presents a Reversible Data Hiding method in grayscale digital images using Pixel Prediction Error. The prediction error of the prediction error is modified to store the secret data. The prediction of the image pixels is carried out using interpolation from neighboring pixels. The high spatial correlation of image pixels in natural images lead to prediction errors close to zero. In the second step a further interpolation of prediction errors are applied to get the prediction error of prediction errors. These errors are then modified by using histogram modification procedure to carry the secret data in binary form. A novel artificial neural networks based system is trained to find the optimal sorting order of the prediction errors for embedding. In the existing work, a simple local complexity measure is used as a proxy for pixel prediction errors. However, in the proposed work the neural networks based solution gives a more optimal order to embed pixels. Experimental results and analysis are carried out with a set of eight test images with varying characteristics. It is shown that the proposed pixel sorting method gives better visual performance for the same embedding rate compared against existing procedure. The average Peak Signal to Noise Ratio of the proposed work is 56.1 dB which is better than 54.40 dB given by existing work.

Keywords:

reversible data hiding prediction of prediction error pixel sorting watermarking neural networks steganography 

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Singh, P. and Chadha, R.S., A survey of digital watermarking techniques, applications and attacks, Int. J. Eng. Innovative Technol., 2013, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 165–175.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Petitcolas, F.A.P., Anderson, R.J., and Kuhn, M.G., Information hiding—a survey, Proc. IEEE, 1999, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1062–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fridrich, J., Applications of data hiding in digital images, Signal Processing and Its Applications, 1999.ISSPA'99.Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on, IEEE, 1999, vol. 1.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shu Yan, Fan Chen, and Hongjie He, Improved separable reversible data hiding in encrypted image based on neighborhood prediction, International Conference on Cloud Computing and Security, Springer International Publishing, 2016.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tian Jun, Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., 2003, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 890–896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhicheng Ni, Yun-Qing Shi, Nirwan Ansari, and Wei Su, Reversible data hiding, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., 2006, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 354–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xinpeng Zhang, Reversible data hiding in encrypted image, IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 2011, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 255–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wien Hong, Tung-Shou Chen, and Han-Yan Wu, An improved reversible data hiding in encrypted images using side match, IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 2012, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 199–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kede Ma, Weiming Zhang, and Xianfeng Zhao, Reversible data hiding in encrypted images by reserving room before encryption, IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur., 2013, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 553–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yuan-Yu Tsai, Du-Shiau Tsai, and Chao-Liang Liu, Reversible data hiding scheme based on neighboring pixel differences, Digital Signal Process., 2013, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 919–927.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fridrich, J., Goljan, M., and Du, R., Lossless data embedding for all image formats, in Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IV, International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2002, vol. 4675.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sachnev, V., Kim, H., Suresh, S., and Shi, Y.Q., Reversible watermarking algorithm with distortion compensation, EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process, 2011, vol. 2010, 316820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sachnev, V., Hyoung Joong Kim, Jeho Nam, Sundaram Suresh, and Yun Qing Shi, Reversible watermarking algorithm using sorting and prediction, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., 2009, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 989–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lixin Luo, Zhenyong Chen, Ming Chen, Xiao Zeng, and Zhang Xiong, Reversible image watermarking using interpolation technique, IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur., 2010, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hao Luo, Fa-Xin Yu, Hua Chen, Zheng-Liang Huang, Hui Li, and Ping-Hui Wang, Reversible data hiding based on block median preservation, Inf. Sci., 2011, vol. 181, no.2, pp. 308–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Celik, M.U., Sharma, G., Tekalp, A.M., and Sab, E., Reversible data hiding, Image Processing. 2002. Proceedings. 2002 International Conference on. IEEE, 2002, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang, X., Li, X., Yang, B., and Guo, Z., Efficient generalized integer transform for reversible watermarking, IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 2010, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 567–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Han-Zhou Wu, Hong-Xia Wang, and Yun-Qing Shi, Prediction-error of Prediction Error (PPE)-based Reversible Data Hiding, Proc. 4th ACM Workshop Inf. Hiding and Multimedia Security (IH&MMSec), 2016, pp. 187–188.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hopfield, J.J., Artificial neural networks, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., 1988, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Charalambous, C., Conjugate gradient algorithm for efficient training of artificial neural networks, IEE Proceedings G (Circuits, Devices and Systems), 1992, vol. 139, no. 3, pp. 301–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hsu, F., Wu, M., and Wang, S., Reversible data hiding using side-match predictions on steganographic images, Multimedia Tools Appl., 2013, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 571–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Karpagam Academy of Higher EducationCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations