Effect of Electron-Beam Treatment on Wear-Resistant Coatings Applied by Electroexplosive Sputtering
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TiC–Mo, TiC–Ni, TiB2–Mo, and TiB2–Ni coatings applied to the surface of Hardox 450 steel by electroexplosive sputtering are subjected to electron-beam treatment, After electroexplosive application, the surface relief of the coatings includes features such as deformed solidifying microglobules, buildup, microcraters, microcracks, and peeling. After electron-beam treatment, the microglobules, buildup, microcraters, and microcracks disappear from the coating surface. A polycrystalline structure containing cellular elements is formed. After electron-beam treatment, the surface roughness is 1.1–1.2 μm. The thickness of the layers modified by the electron beam in the electroexplosive coatings depends linearly on the surface energy density. The greatest coating thickness is observed when using the TiB2–Mo system; the coating thickness is least for the TiC–Ni system. That may be attributed to the thermophysical properties of the coatings. The following substructures are observed in the coatings: cellular, striated, fragmented, and subgranular. Grains with chaotically distributed dislocations and reticular dislocations are also observed. Electron-beam treatment leads to the formation of composite filled structure over the whole cross section of the remelted layer. The structure formed in this layer is more disperse and uniform than in coatings formed without electron-beam treatment. The inclusions of titanium carbide or titanium diboride in the molybdenum or nickel matrix are 2–4 times smaller than immediately after electroexplosive sputtering. Within the molybdenum or nickel grains and at their boundaries, rounded particles of secondary phase (titanium carbide or titanium diboride) are observed. They may be divided into two classes by size: particles of the initial powder (80–150 nm) that have not dissolved on irradiation; and particles formed on solidification of the melt (10–15 nm). In the electroexplosive powder coatings, the structure is mainly formed by dynamic rotation of the sprayed particles, which form a vertical structure both in the coating and in the upper layers of the substrate. The coatings have excellent operational properties: nano- and microhardness, elastic modulus of the first kind, and wear resistance in dry slipping friction.
Keywordselectroexplosive sputtering electron-beam treatment coating structure coating properties titanium carbide titanium diboride nickel molybdenum wear resistance
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