The economic importance of white peach scale (WPS) Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti, 1886 (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) is ascribed to its high reproductive potential. The number of generations per year varies in different places of the world. Seasonal population fluctuations of different life stages of WPS were studied from April 30, 2015, to April 29, 2017, on kiwi fruit trees in the Mazandaran province of Iran. In the first year the total population of P. pentagona had five peaks: April, June, August, October, and November. In the second year, the total population of P. pentagona had four peaks: May, August, October and November. The pre-adult stages had four high infestation periods in May, July, August, and October in the first season and also in the second year occurred on May, Jun, September and October. The gravid females began to appear and laying of eggs started from late March in both years. The maximum period of infestation was reached during May. Significant differences were observed among samples in different directions of the tree and most pests were found in the South. The rate of parasitization also varied with the month from 12 to 84% on branches of kiwi fruits. The highest percentage of the parasitation was observed in North and West. Thus, the present results may help in planning a successful control program of WPS on kiwi fruit trees in the Mazandaran province of Iran.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abbasipour H (2007) Biological studies of white peach scale. In: Shahed University (ed) Pseudodalacaspis pentagona (Taragioni-Tozzetti) (Hom.: Diaspididae) on kiwifruit trees in western Mazandarn, Iran. Research project final report. Iran, Tehran, pp 18–31
Bazrafshan B, Razmjou J, Damavandian MR, Rafiee Dastjerdi H (2010) Population dynamics of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona and its important natural enemies in Mazandaran. M.Sc. thesis, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran
Benassy C (1961) Contribution à l’étude de quelques facteurs biologiques sur la limitation des pullulations de cochenilles diaspines. Annales de l’Institut National de Recherche Agronomique Série C, Epiphyties, H-S 1:1–157
Ben-Dov Y, Miller DR, Gibson GAP (2015) ScaleNet query results, Available at: http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/scalenet/scalenet.htm. Accessed 16 June 2015
Branscome D (2012) White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Diaspididae). http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in 233. Accessed 1 Aug 2012
Chafaa S, Biche M, Chenchouni H, Sellami M, Si Bachir A (2013a) Cycle biologique de Parlatoria oleae (Hemiptera : Diaspididae) infe´ ode´ e aux oliveraies dans une région aride. Can Entomol 145:398–405. https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2012.107
Chafaa S, Biche M, Chenchouni H, Sellami M, Si Bachir A (2013b) Effet du climat et de l’exposition sur la dynamique des populations de la cochenille violette, Parlatoria oleae Colvée (Hemiptera : Diaspididae), en conditions arides. Ann Soc Entomol France (NS): Int J Entomol 49(3):291–297. https://doi.org/10.1080/00379271.2013.856203
Coll M, Abd-Rabou S (1998) Effect of oil emulsion sprays on parsitoids of the black parlatoria, Parlatoria ziziphi, in grape fruit. Biocontrol 43:29–37. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009974330554
Collins FA, Whitcomb WH (1975) Natural enemies of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Homoptera: Coccidae), in Florida. Fla Entomol 58:15–21. https://doi.org/10.2307/3493860
Esmaili M (1983) Fruit pests of Iran. Tehran Sepahr Publishing Co, Tehran
Ezzat YM, Nada SM (1986) List of superfamily Coccoidea as known to exist in Egypt. Boll Lab Entomol Agrar Portici 43:85–90
García M, Denno B, Miller DR, Miller GL, Ben-Dov Y, Hardy NB (2016) Scale net: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. http://scalenet.info. Accessed 2 Mar 2016
Gholamian E, Aghajanzadeh S (2016) Kiwi fruit pests of north of Iran. Agricultural Education Publication, p 24
Goli Tavana M, Molaei Kh, Moostofipour P, Alhosseini H (1990) Study of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona biology and possibility of its biological control. Iranian Research Institute of Plant Pests and Diseases, p 73
Hanks LM, Denno RF (1994) Local adaptation in the armored scale insect Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Ecology. 75(8):2301–2310. https://doi.org/10.2307/1940885
Kaydan MB, Ülgentürk S, Erkılıç L (2013) Checklist of Turkish Coccoidea (Hemiptera: Sternorryncha) species. Turk Bull Entomol 3(4):157–182. https://doi.org/10.16969/teb.01178
Kosztarab M (1990) Economic importance. In: Rosen D (ed) Armored scale insects, their biology, natural enemies and control [Series title: World crop pests, Vol. 4B]. Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, pp 307–311
Kuitert LC (1967) Observation on the biology bionomics and control of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ.). Proc Fla St Hort Soc 80:376–381
Miller DR, Davidson JA (2005) Armored scale insect pests of trees and shrubs (Hemiptera:Diaspididae). Cornell University Press, Ithaca
Park JD, Kim KC (1990) Host range, life cycle and natural enemies of mulberry scale (Pseudaulacaspis pentagona) on Prunus mume in southern Korea. Korean J Appl Entomol 29(2):104–112
Pedata PA, Hunter MS, Godfray HCJ (1995) The population dynamics of the white peach scale and its parasitoids in a mulberry orchard in Campania, Italy. Bull Entomol Res 85:531–539. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300033034
Tawfeek ME, Abu-shall Amany MH (2010) Seasonal population dynamics of Parlatoria ziziphus (Lucas) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Menoufia Gavernorate, Egypt. Alexandria Sci Exch J 31(4):331–338. https://doi.org/10.21608/ASEJAIQJSAE.2010.2327
Trencheva KG (2004) Life history of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on Prunus persica var. nectarina. Proceeding of the X International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies 19–23 April, Adana, Turkey
Ülgentürk S, Ayhan B, Karakaya A (2009) Rize ili kivi bahçelerinde görülen kabuklubitler ve koşniller (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). J Agric Faculty Uludağ Uni 23(1):55–60
Zeki C, Ülgentürk S, Noyes JC, Kaydan MB (2004) Natural enemies of Coccoidea (Hemiptera) on orchard trees and the neighbouring areas plants in Afyon, Ankara, Burdur Isparta Provinces, Turkey. Proceeding of the X International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, pp 361–372
This work was supported by the Shahed University of Iran and carried out in Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Toorani, A.H., Abbasipour, H., Karimi, J. et al. Seasonal population fluctuations of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemimptera: Diaspididae) and its parasitation in kiwi orchards of northern Iran. Biologia 75, 943–953 (2020). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-019-00347-3
- White peach scale
- Seasonal population dynamics