Seasonal population fluctuations of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemimptera: Diaspididae) and its parasitation in kiwi orchards of northern Iran

Abstract

The economic importance of white peach scale (WPS) Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti, 1886 (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) is ascribed to its high reproductive potential. The number of generations per year varies in different places of the world. Seasonal population fluctuations of different life stages of WPS were studied from April 30, 2015, to April 29, 2017, on kiwi fruit trees in the Mazandaran province of Iran. In the first year the total population of P. pentagona had five peaks: April, June, August, October, and November. In the second year, the total population of P. pentagona had four peaks: May, August, October and November. The pre-adult stages had four high infestation periods in May, July, August, and October in the first season and also in the second year occurred on May, Jun, September and October. The gravid females began to appear and laying of eggs started from late March in both years. The maximum period of infestation was reached during May. Significant differences were observed among samples in different directions of the tree and most pests were found in the South. The rate of parasitization also varied with the month from 12 to 84% on branches of kiwi fruits. The highest percentage of the parasitation was observed in North and West. Thus, the present results may help in planning a successful control program of WPS on kiwi fruit trees in the Mazandaran province of Iran.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Abbasipour H (2007) Biological studies of white peach scale. In: Shahed University (ed) Pseudodalacaspis pentagona (Taragioni-Tozzetti) (Hom.: Diaspididae) on kiwifruit trees in western Mazandarn, Iran. Research project final report. Iran, Tehran, pp 18–31

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bazrafshan B, Razmjou J, Damavandian MR, Rafiee Dastjerdi H (2010) Population dynamics of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona and its important natural enemies in Mazandaran. M.Sc. thesis, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran

  3. Benassy C (1961) Contribution à l’étude de quelques facteurs biologiques sur la limitation des pullulations de cochenilles diaspines. Annales de l’Institut National de Recherche Agronomique Série C, Epiphyties, H-S 1:1–157

  4. Ben-Dov Y, Miller DR, Gibson GAP (2015) ScaleNet query results, Available at: http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/scalenet/scalenet.htm. Accessed 16 June 2015

  5. Branscome D (2012) White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Diaspididae). http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in 233. Accessed 1 Aug 2012

  6. Chafaa S, Biche M, Chenchouni H, Sellami M, Si Bachir A (2013a) Cycle biologique de Parlatoria oleae (Hemiptera : Diaspididae) infe´ ode´ e aux oliveraies dans une région aride. Can Entomol 145:398–405. https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2012.107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Chafaa S, Biche M, Chenchouni H, Sellami M, Si Bachir A (2013b) Effet du climat et de l’exposition sur la dynamique des populations de la cochenille violette, Parlatoria oleae Colvée (Hemiptera : Diaspididae), en conditions arides. Ann Soc Entomol France (NS): Int J Entomol 49(3):291–297. https://doi.org/10.1080/00379271.2013.856203

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Coll M, Abd-Rabou S (1998) Effect of oil emulsion sprays on parsitoids of the black parlatoria, Parlatoria ziziphi, in grape fruit. Biocontrol 43:29–37. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009974330554

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Collins FA, Whitcomb WH (1975) Natural enemies of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Homoptera: Coccidae), in Florida. Fla Entomol 58:15–21. https://doi.org/10.2307/3493860

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Esmaili M (1983) Fruit pests of Iran. Tehran Sepahr Publishing Co, Tehran

  11. Ezzat YM, Nada SM (1986) List of superfamily Coccoidea as known to exist in Egypt. Boll Lab Entomol Agrar Portici 43:85–90

    Google Scholar 

  12. García M, Denno B, Miller DR, Miller GL, Ben-Dov Y, Hardy NB (2016) Scale net: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. http://scalenet.info. Accessed 2 Mar 2016

  13. Gholamian E, Aghajanzadeh S (2016) Kiwi fruit pests of north of Iran. Agricultural Education Publication, p 24

  14. Goli Tavana M, Molaei Kh, Moostofipour P, Alhosseini H (1990) Study of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona biology and possibility of its biological control. Iranian Research Institute of Plant Pests and Diseases, p 73

  15. Hanks LM, Denno RF (1994) Local adaptation in the armored scale insect Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Ecology. 75(8):2301–2310. https://doi.org/10.2307/1940885

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Kaydan MB, Ülgentürk S, Erkılıç L (2013) Checklist of Turkish Coccoidea (Hemiptera: Sternorryncha) species. Turk Bull Entomol 3(4):157–182. https://doi.org/10.16969/teb.01178

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Kosztarab M (1990) Economic importance. In: Rosen D (ed) Armored scale insects, their biology, natural enemies and control [Series title: World crop pests, Vol. 4B]. Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, pp 307–311

    Google Scholar 

  18. Kuitert LC (1967) Observation on the biology bionomics and control of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ.). Proc Fla St Hort Soc 80:376–381

    Google Scholar 

  19. Miller DR, Davidson JA (2005) Armored scale insect pests of trees and shrubs (Hemiptera:Diaspididae). Cornell University Press, Ithaca

  20. Park JD, Kim KC (1990) Host range, life cycle and natural enemies of mulberry scale (Pseudaulacaspis pentagona) on Prunus mume in southern Korea. Korean J Appl Entomol 29(2):104–112

    Google Scholar 

  21. Pedata PA, Hunter MS, Godfray HCJ (1995) The population dynamics of the white peach scale and its parasitoids in a mulberry orchard in Campania, Italy. Bull Entomol Res 85:531–539. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300033034

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Tawfeek ME, Abu-shall Amany MH (2010) Seasonal population dynamics of Parlatoria ziziphus (Lucas) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Menoufia Gavernorate, Egypt. Alexandria Sci Exch J 31(4):331–338. https://doi.org/10.21608/ASEJAIQJSAE.2010.2327

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Trencheva KG (2004) Life history of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on Prunus persica var. nectarina. Proceeding of the X International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies 19–23 April, Adana, Turkey

  24. Ülgentürk S, Ayhan B, Karakaya A (2009) Rize ili kivi bahçelerinde görülen kabuklubitler ve koşniller (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). J Agric Faculty Uludağ Uni 23(1):55–60

    Google Scholar 

  25. Zeki C, Ülgentürk S, Noyes JC, Kaydan MB (2004) Natural enemies of Coccoidea (Hemiptera) on orchard trees and the neighbouring areas plants in Afyon, Ankara, Burdur Isparta Provinces, Turkey. Proceeding of the X International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, pp 361–372

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Shahed University of Iran and carried out in Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Habib Abbasipour.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Toorani, A.H., Abbasipour, H., Karimi, J. et al. Seasonal population fluctuations of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemimptera: Diaspididae) and its parasitation in kiwi orchards of northern Iran. Biologia 75, 943–953 (2020). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-019-00347-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Kiwi
  • White peach scale
  • Seasonal population dynamics
  • Parasitoids
  • Iran