, Volume 73, Issue 1, pp 93–100 | Cite as

Fish species composition, sex ratio and growth parameters in Saghamo Lake (Southern Georgia)

  • Tatia Kuljanishvili
  • Levan Mumladze
  • Lukáš Kalous
  • Bella Japoshvili
Original Article


We provide a first investigation of fish species composition, sex ratios, age, length-weight relationships and growth models in Saghamo Lake located in Javakheti highland (Georgia). In total 713 specimens belonging to 8 species were collected included non-native Coregonus albula, Carassius gibelio and native Alburnoides bipunctatus, Squalius cephalus, Capoeta capoeta, Romanogobio persus, Salmo cf. caspius and Barbus lacerta, among which later two were recorded for the first time in the lake. In overall, relative abundances of all species is low while some species may not be presented with viable populations. Deviation from expected sex ratio, growth at age and age structure indicates severe anthropogenic pressure as a potential driver of fish community degradation in the lake.


Javakheti plateau Fish community Population parameters 



This work was supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation Grant for Master Research to TK (Grant Number 15MR_ 2.1.6_21), which itself is a part of the Research grant “Study of Javakheti uplands for sustainable environmental and fisheries development” financed by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (Grant Number FR/479/7-130/13). The contribution of LK was supported by CIGA No. 20152007. We would like to thank to our colleagues from the Lab of Ichthyology and hydrobiology of the Institute of Zoology, Ilia State University for their help during the field works. Additional acknowledgements are due to two anonymous reviewers for their helpful suggestions that improve the manuscript significantly.


  1. Abdoli A, Rasooli P, Mostafavi H (2008) Length-weight relationships of Capoeta capoeta capoeta (Gueldenstaedt, 1772) in the Gorganrud River, south Caspian Basin. J Appl Ichthyol 24:96–98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson RO, Neuman RM (1996) Length, weight, and associated structural indices. In: Murphy BR (ed) Fisheries techniques. Bethesda, American Fisheries Society, pp 447–482Google Scholar
  3. Apkhazava I (1975) Lakes of Georgia. Metsniereba, Tbilisi (In Russian)Google Scholar
  4. Barach G (1941) Fresh water fishes of Georgia. Metsniereba, Tbilisi (In Russian)Google Scholar
  5. Barach G (1964) Lake reservuars in Georgia and their fishery value. Sabchota Sakartvelo, Tbilisi (In Russian)Google Scholar
  6. Birdlife International (2016) Accessed 22 Dec 2016
  7. Burt A (2000) Perspective: sex, recombination and the efficacy of the selection-was Weismann right? Evolution 54:337–351. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cailliet GM, Love MS, Ebeling AW (1996) Fishes: a field and laboratory manual on their structure, identification and natural history. Prospect Heights, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  9. Copp GH, Vilizzi L, Mumford J, Fenwick GV, Godard MJ, Gozlan RE (2009) Calibration of FISK, an invasiveness screening tool for nonnative freshwater fishes. Risk Anal 29:457–467. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Devlin RH, Nagahama Y (2002) Sex determination and sex differentiation in fish: an overview of genetic, physiological, and environmental influences. Aquaculture 208:191–364. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elanidze R (1983) Ichthyofauna of the rivers and lakes of Georgia. Metsniereba, Tbilisi (In Russian)Google Scholar
  12. Elanidze R, Demetrashvili M (1973) Fishes-Pisces. In: Kurashvili B (ed) Fauna of Georgia. Metsniereba, Tbilisi, pp 121–221 (In Georgian)Google Scholar
  13. Froese R, Pauly D (2015) FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. Accessed 12 Feb 2017
  14. Gabelashvili S, Bikashvili A, Shubitidze Z, Gioshvili M, Pankvelashvili E, Mumladze L, Japoshvili B (2016) Family level diversity and distribution of macroinvertebrates of Madatapa, Khanchali and Bughdasheni lakes in javakheti plateau (South Georgia). Proceedings of the institute of. Zoology 25:117–128Google Scholar
  15. Japoshvili B (2009) Monitoring on Ichthyofauna in Paravani Lake. Unesko/Keizo Obuchi Research Felloowship Programe in 2005-2006: results achieved, pp 42–43Google Scholar
  16. Japoshvili B (2012) Long-term assessment of a vendace (Coregonus albula L.) stock in Lake Paravani, South Georgia. Biology and Management of Coregonid Fishes – 2008 63:363–369Google Scholar
  17. Japoshvili B, Mumladze L, Küçük F (2013) Invasive Carassius carp in Georgia: current state of knowledge and future perspectives. Curr Zool 59:732–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Japoshvili B, Mumladze L, Murvanidze L (2017) The population of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) and its parasites in Madatapa Lake (South Georgia). Iran J Fish Sci 16:793–799Google Scholar
  19. Kalous L, Knytl M (2011) Karyotype diversity of the offspring resulting from reproduction experiment between diploid male and triploid female of silver prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Cyprinidae, Actinopterygii). Folia Zool 60:115–121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kasymov AG (1972) Freshwater fauna of Caucasus. Elm, Baku (In Russian)Google Scholar
  21. King M (2007) Fisheries biology, assessment and management. Blackwell Publishing, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Koç HT, Erdogan Z, Tinkci M, Treer T (2007) Age, growth and reproductive characteristics of chub, Leuciscus cephalus (L., 1758) in the Ikizcetepeler dam lake (Balikesir), Turkey. J Appl Ichthyol 23:19–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kottelat M, Freyhof J (2007) Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications of Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  24. Liasko R, Koulish A, Pogrebniak A, Papiggioti O, Taranenko L, Leonardos I (2011) Influence of environmental parameters on growth pattern and population structure of Carassius auratus gibelio in Eastern Ukraine. Hydrobiologia 658:317–328. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lusk S, Luskova V, Hanel L (2010) Alien fish species in the Czech Republic and their impact on the native fish fauna. Folia Zool 59:57–72. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lusková V, Lusk S, Halačka K, Vetešník L (2010) Carassius auratus gibelio - the most successful invasive fish in waters of the Czech Republic. Russ J Biol Invas 1:176–180. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Maruashvili L (1964) Physical geography of Georgia. Tsodna, Tbilisi (In Georgian)Google Scholar
  28. Matcharashvili I, Arabuli G, Darchiashvili G, Gorgadze G (2004) Wetland ecosystems of Javakheti: biodiversity and conservation. CGS Kalamus Graphic Ltd, Tbilisi (In Georgian)Google Scholar
  29. National Statistics office of Georgia (2014) Population Census. Accessed 7 Nov 2016
  30. Nikolsky GV (1963) The ecology of fishes. Moscow State University, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  31. Ninua N, Japoshvili B, Bochorishvili V (2013) Fishes of Georgia. Tsignieri, TbilisiGoogle Scholar
  32. Ospina-Álvarez N, Piferrer F (2008) Temperature-dependent sex determination in fish revisited: prevalence, a single sex ratio response pattern, and possible effects of climate change. PLoS One 3:e2837. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Patimar R, Ownagh E, Jafari N, Hosseini M (2009) Intrabasin variation in allometry coefficients of Lenkoran Capoeta capoeta gracilis (Keyserling, 1861) in the Gorganroud basin, southeast Caspian Sea, Iran. J Appl Ichthyol 25:776–778. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Patimar R, Davaji A, Jorjani A (2011) Life history of the Lenkoran Capoeta capoeta gracilis (Keyserling, 1981) in the Atrak River, northern Iran. J Life Sci 5:369–375. Google Scholar
  35. Patimar R, Zare M, Hesam M (2012) Research articleon the life history of spirlin Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782) in the qanat of Uzineh, northern Iran. Turk J Zool 36:383–393. Google Scholar
  36. Pipoyan S, Egoyan K, Arakelyan A (2013) Fish species composition in the middle flow of river Paravani and Lake Sagamo. Vestnik TGU 18:3059–3061Google Scholar
  37. R Development Core Team (2016) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  38. Riehl R, Baensch HA (1990) Mergus Aquarien Atlas, Bd3. Verlag für Natur-und Heimtierkunde, MelleGoogle Scholar
  39. Rylková K, Kalous L, Bohlen J, Lamatsch DK, Petrtýl M (2013) Phylogeny and biogeographic history of the cyprinid fish genus Carassius (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) with focus on natural and anthropogenic arrivals in Europe. Aquaculture 380:13–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Savvaitova KA, Petr T (1999) Fish and fisheries in Lake Sevan, Armenia, and in some other high altitude lakes of Caucasus. In: Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia. FAO fisheries technical paper, Toowoomba, Queensland, pp 270–304Google Scholar
  41. Smith JM (1978) The evolution of sex. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  42. Soper DS (2017) Significance of the difference between two slopes calculator. Accessed 14 June 2016
  43. Tsoumani M, Liasko R, Moutsaki P, Kagalou I, Leonardos I (2006) Length-weight relationships of an invasive cyprinid fish (Carassius gibelio) from 12 Greek lakes in relation to their trophic states. J Appl Ichthyol 22:281–284. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Türkmen M, Haliloğlu HI, Erdoğan O, Yildirim A (1999) The growth and reproduction characteristics of chub Leuciscus cephalus orientalis (Nordmann, 1840) living in the river Aras. Turk J Zool 23:355–364Google Scholar
  45. Ünver B (1998) An investigation on the reproduction properties of chub (Leuciscus cephalus L., 1758) in lake Tödürge (Zara/Sivas). Turk J Zool 22:141–147Google Scholar
  46. Verreycken H, Van Thuyne G, Belpaire C (2011) Length–weight relationships of 40 freshwater fish species from two decades of monitoring in Flanders (Belgium). J Appl Ichthyol 27:1416–1421. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vetemaa M, Eschbaum R, Albert A, Saat T (2005) Distribution, sex ratio and growth of Carassius gibelio (Bloch) in coastal and inland waters of Estonia (north-eastern Baltic Sea). J Appl Ichthyol 21:287–291. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Slovak Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural ResourcesCzech University of Life Sciences PraguePragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.Institute of Zoology and Center of Biodiversity Studies, Institute of EcologyIlia State UniversityTbilisiGeorgia

Personalised recommendations