Elicitation of withaferin-A in hairy root culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal using natural polysaccharides
- 4 Downloads
Withaferin-A (WA) is a major bioactive compound in the roots of Withania somnifera. It is reported to possess inhibitory effects against breast cancer, liver cancer, melanoma cancer and prostate cancer cells. We developed an elicitation based on the hairy root culture (HRC) protocol for the enhancement of the WA production. Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain R1000 was used for the establishment of hairy root culture. PCR analysis confirmed the integration of the root loci C (rol C) gene in transformed roots. Elicitation of the hairy roots with natural polysaccharides of sodium alginate (SA), k-carrageenan (kC) and chitosan (CH) at various concentrations in the most cases resulted in a higher amount of WA compound. Among the various elicitors, 100 mg L−1 CH resulted 4.03-fold increase in WA production than control. This study is the first report in W. somnifera hairy roots, where the natural polysaccharides are used as elicitors for the large-scale production of WA.
KeywordsHairy root culture Polysaccharides Sodium alginate K-carrageenan Chitosan Withaferin
Hairy root culture
- rol C
Root loci C gene
Dr. A. Shajahan is thankful to the University Grants Commissions (UGC), Govt. of India, New Delhi for the financial support through UGC Major Research Project (F. No. 42-946/2013-SR). The authors also thankful to DST, Govt. of India for providing facilities through DST-FIST program.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Aalinkeel R, Hu Z, Nair BB, Sykes DE, Reynolds JL, Mahajan SD, Schwarts SA (2010) Genomic analysis highlights the role of the JAK-STAT signaling in the anti-proliferative effects of dietary flavonoid-‘Ashwagandha’ in prostate cancer cells. Evidence-Based Compl Altern Med 7(2):177–187. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nem184 Google Scholar
- Alfaifi MY, Saleh KA, El-Boushnak MA, Elbehairi SE, Alshehri MA, Shati AA (2016) Antiproliferative activity of the methanolic extract of Withania somnifera leaves from Faifa mountains, Southwest Saudi Arabia, against several human cancer cell lines. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 17(5):2723–2726. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.5.2723 Google Scholar
- Chaurasiya ND, Sangwan NS, Sabir F, Misra L, Sangwan RS (2012) Withanolide biosynthesis recruits both mevalonate and DOXP pathways of isoprenogenesis in Ashwagandha Withania somnifera L. (Dunal). Plant Cell Rep. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-012-1302-4
- Estruch JJ, Chriqui D, Grossmann K, Schell J, Spena A (1991) The plant oncogene rol-C is responsible for the release of cytokinins from glucoside conjugates. EMBO J 10(10):2889–2895. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1460-2075.1991.tb07838.x Google Scholar
- Hashmi N, Khan MMA, Moinuddin IM, Khan ZK, Ali A, Varshney L (2012) Depolymerised carrageenan ameliorates growth, physiological attributes, essential oil yield and active constituents of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Carbohydr Polym 90(1):407–412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.05.058 Google Scholar
- Kim OT, Bang KH, Shin YS, Lee MJ, Jung SJ, Hyun DY, Kim YC, Senong NS, Cha SW, Hwang B (2007) Enhanced production of asiaticoside from hairy root cultures of Centella asiatica (L.) urban elicited by methyl jasmonate. Plant Cell Rep 26(11):1941–1949. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-007-0400-1 Google Scholar
- Maliyakkal N, Udupa N, Pai K, Rangarajan A (2013) Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of extracts of Withania somnifera and Tinospora cordidolia in human breast cancer cells. Int J Appo Res Nat Prod 6(4):1–10Google Scholar
- Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x Google Scholar
- Potrykus I (1990) Gene transfer to plants: assessment and perspectives. Physiol Plant 79(1):125–134. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1990.tb05874.x Google Scholar
- Ramawat KG, Goyal S (2008) The Indian herbal drugs scenario in glonl perspectives, pp. 325–347. In: Ramawat KG, Merillon JM (eds.), Bioactive molecules and medicinal plants. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74603-4_18
- Sivanandhan G, Arun M, Mayavan S, Rajesh M, Mariashibu TS, Manickavasagam M, Selvaraj N, Ganapathy A (2012) Chitosan enhances withanolides production in adventitious root cultures of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Ind Crop Prod 37:124–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.11.022 Google Scholar
- Sivanandhan G, Kapil Dev G, Jeyaraj M, Rajesh M, Arjunan A, Muthuselvam M, Manickavasagam M, Selvaraj N, Ganapathi A (2013) Increased production of withanolide A, withanone, and withaferin A in hairy root cultures of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal elicited with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 114(1):121–129. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-013-0297-z Google Scholar