, Volume 74, Issue 8, pp 993–1000 | Cite as

Carcass characteristics and serum biochemical profile of Japanese quail by the supplementation of pine needles and vitamin E powder

  • Irfan Ullah Khan
  • Assar Ali Shah
  • Fayaz Ahmed Sahibzada
  • Azam Hayyat
  • Mudasir Nazar
  • Muhammad Mobashar
  • Ambrina Tariq
  • Nighat SultanaEmail author
Original Article


The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of pine needles and vitamin E powder on blood biochemistry and carcass characteristics of female Japanese quails. A total of 180 female Japanese quails were obtained from the open market and maintained at deep litter housing pens system for 42 days. After adaptation, all female quails were divided into the following groups, group 1, control QC; group 2, QE; supplemented with vitamin E at the rate of 150 mg L−1; group 3, QP; pine needles at the rate of 150 mg L−1and group 4, QEP; the combination of both. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and total cholesterol (TC) were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by QE and QP groups as compared to QC and QEP groups. Triglyceride (TG), total protein (TP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly (p < 0.05) increased in all treatment groups except for the QC group. Aspartate transaminase was (AST) significantly (p < 0.05) increased and alanine transaminase (ALT) was decreased in treatment groups as compared to QC. The concentration of Zinc (Zn), female breast meat composition, and the content of crude fat were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in treatments groups than in QC. The addition of pine needles and vitamin E in female Japanese quail feed, improved female quail performance, and serum antioxidant system.


Blood biochemistry Carcass characteristics Japanese quail 



alanine transaminase




aspartate aminotrasferase


glutathione peroxidase






feed conversion ratio




high-density lipoprotein cholesterol








total cholesterol


Total protein


Uric Acid




superoxide dismutase




reactive oxygen species





The study was supported by Prof. Dr. Nighat Sultana, Department of Biochemistry, Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

The study was approved by the ethics committees of the Department of Biochemistry, Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Conflicts of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of this article.


  1. Adebiyi OA (2011) Tocopherol supplementation on stocking density of broiler effect on performance characteristics and serum enzymes. Trop Subtrop Agro Ecosyst 14:623–628. Google Scholar
  2. Anil MH (2012) Religious slaughter: a current controversial animal welfare issue. Anim Front 2:64–67. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1990) Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Washington, DC, USA, pp 831–835. Accessed 2014-7-3.
  4. Chand N, Naz S, Rehman Z, Khan RU (2018) Blood biochemical profile of four fast-growing broiler strains under high ambient temperature. Appl Biol Chem 61(3):273–279. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dhama K, Karthik K, Khandia R, Munjal A, Tiwari R, Rana R, Khurana SK, Ullah S, Khan RU, Alagawany M, Farag MR, Dadar M, Joshi SK (2018) Medicinal and therapeutic potential of herbs and plant metabolites/extracts countering viral pathogens - current knowledge and future prospects. Curr Drug Metab 19:236–263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Guo A, Cheng L, Al-Mamun M, Xiong C, Yang S (2018) Effect of dietary pine needles powder supplementation on growth, organ weight and blood biochemical profiles in broilers. J Appl Anim Res 46:518–522. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hasret Y, Turkay G (2008) The effects of vitamin E on the antioxidant system, egg production, and egg quality in heat stressed laying hens. J Vet Anim Sci 32:319–325Google Scholar
  8. Hooda S, Tyagi PK, Mohan J, Mandal AB, Elangovan AV, Tyagi Pramod K (2007) Effects of supplemental vitamin E in diet of Japanese quail on male reproduction, fertility and hatchability. Br Poult Sci 48:104–110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jena BP, Panda N, Patra RC, Mishra PK, Behura NC, Panigrahi B (2013) Supplementation of vitamin E and C reduces oxidative stress in broiler breeder hens during summer. Food Nutr Sci 4:33–37. Google Scholar
  10. Kara K, Şentürk M, Guclu BK, Sariözkan S, Eren M (2016) Effect of catechins on fattening performance, meat quality, some antioxidant and blood parameters and fattening costs in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Br Poult Sci 57:522–530. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Khan RU, Javed I, Muhammad F (2012) Effects of vitamins probiotics and protein level on semen traits and some seminal plasma macro-and micro minerals of male broiler breeders after zinc-induced molting. Biol Trace Elem Res 148:44–52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Khan RU, Zia-ur-Rahman JI, Muhammad F (2014) Serum antioxidants and trace minerals as influenced by vitamins, probiotics and proteins in broiler breeders. J Appl Anim Res 42:249–255. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Khan UI, Shah AA, Sahibzada FA, Hayyat A, Nazar M, Sultana N (2018) Biological and biochemical characteristics of male reproductive system, serum metabolites and carcass quality of Japanese quails by supplementation of Pinus ponderosa needle and α-tocopherol acetate. Anim Sci J.
  14. Kim ET (2012) Effects of plant extracts on microbial population, methane emission and ruminal fermentation characteristics in in vitro. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 25(6):806–811. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kim Y, Kim MC, Choi HJ, Choi H (2012) Effect of dietary mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L) and pine needle powder (Pinus densiflora) on growth performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality in broilers. Afr J Biotechnol 12:1–11. Google Scholar
  16. Kwak CS, Moon SC, Lee MS (2006) Antioxidant, ant mutagenic and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora). Nutr Cancer 56:162–171. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Line Y, Chang F, Yang SJ, Lee RJ, Hsu YP (2005) Effects of supplemental vitamin E during the mature period on the reproductive performance of Taiwan native chicken cockerels. Poult Sci 46:366–337. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Majid A, Qureshi MS, Khan RU (2015) In vivo adverse effects of alpha-tocopherol on the semen quality of male bucks. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 99:841–846. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Makker K, Agarwal A, Sharma R (2009) Oxidative stress and male infertility. Indian J Med Res 129:357–367. Google Scholar
  20. Maziar MA, Maziar SA, Hosseini L, Houshang S, Farid RS (2007) Effect of probiotics, yeast, vitamin E and vitamin C supplements on performance and immune response of laying hen during high environmental temperature. Int J Poult Sci 6:895–900. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mobaraki MA, Shahryar HA, Dizaji AA (2013) The effects of vitamin E-se supplemented on some of serum biochemical parameters in the laying Japanese quail. Bull Env Pharmacol Life Sci 2(10):29–32 Google Scholar
  22. National Research Council (1994) Nutrient requirements of poultry, 9th edn. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp 20–21. Google Scholar
  23. Naz S, Idris M, Khalique MA, Zia-ur-Rahman AIA, Abdelrahman MM, Khan RU, Chand N, Farooq U, Ahmad S (2016) The activity and use of zinc in poultry diets. Worlds Poult Sci J 72:159–167. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Niu ZY, Liu FZ, Yan QL, Li WC (2009) Effects of different levels of vitamin E on growth performance and immune responses of broilers under heat stress. Poult Sci 88:2101–00220. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nwaigwe CO, Kamalu TN, Nwankwo CU, Nwaigwe AN (2010) The effects of vitamin E supplementation on serum lipid peroxidation level and feed intake in birds infected with infectious bursal disease of chickens. Niger Vet J 31:1–12Google Scholar
  26. Park YS, Jeon MH, Hwang HJ, Park MR, Lee SH, Kim SG, Kim M (2011) Antioxidant activity and analysis of proanthocyanidins from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles. Nutr Res Pract 5:281–287. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Polat U, Yesilbag D, Eren M (2011) Serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens fed diets containing rosemary and rosemary volatile oil. J Biol Environ Sci 5:3–13Google Scholar
  28. Rahman HU, Qureshi MS, Khan RU (2014) Influence of dietary zinc on semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant enzymes and trace minerals of Beetal bucks. Reprod Domest Anim 49:1004–1007. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rehman Z u, Chand N, Khan RU, Naz S, Alhidary IA (2018) Serum biochemical profile of two broilers strains supplemented with vitamin E, raw ginger (Zingiber officinale) and L-carnitine under high ambient temperatures. South Afr J Anim Sci 48:935–942. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rochester JR, Klasing KC, Stevenson L, Denison MS, Berry W, Millam JR (2009) Dietary red clover (Trifolium pratense) induces oviduct growth and decreases ovary and testes growth in Japanese quail chicks. Reprod Toxicol 27(1):63–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sahin K, Kucuk O (2001) Effects of vitamin E and selenium on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails reared under heat stress (34 C). J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 85:342–348. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shah AA, Khan MS, Khan S, Ahmad N, Alhidary IA, Khan RU, Shao T (2017) Effect of different levels of alpha tocopherol on performance traits, serum antioxidant enzymes, and trace elements in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) under low ambient temperature. Rev Bras Zootec 45:622–626. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shah AA, Xianjun Y, Zhihao D, Junfeng L, Shao T (2018) Effect of lactic acid bacteria treated king grass silage on the performance traits and serum metabolites in New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 12:e902–e908. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sultan A, Ahmad S, Khan S, Khan RU, Chand N, Tahir M, Ahmad S (2018) Comparative effectof zinc oxide and silymarin on growth, nutrient utilization and hematological parameters of heat distressed broiler. Pak J Zool 50(2):751–758. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tarhyela R, Tanimomob BK, Hena SA (2012) Effect of sex, colour and weight group on carcass characteristics of Japanese quail. Scientific J Anim Sci 1:22–27Google Scholar
  36. Wu QJ, Wang ZB, Wang GY, Li YX, Qi YX (2015) Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers. Poult Sci 94:1138–1144. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zeng WC, Jia LR, Zhang Y, Cen JQ, Chen X, Gao H, Feng S, Huang YN (2013) Antibrowning and antimicrobial activities of the water soluble extract from pine needles of Cedrus deodara. J Food Sci 76:2–8.
  38. Zheng XB, Luo XJ, Zeng YH, Wu JP, Mai BX (2014) Sources, gastrointestinal absorption and stereo-selective and tissue-specific accumulation of dechlorane plus (DP) in chicken. Chemosp 114:241–246. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irfan Ullah Khan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Assar Ali Shah
    • 3
  • Fayaz Ahmed Sahibzada
    • 4
  • Azam Hayyat
    • 5
  • Mudasir Nazar
    • 3
  • Muhammad Mobashar
    • 6
  • Ambrina Tariq
    • 7
  • Nighat Sultana
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life ScienceNanjing UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryHazara University MansehraKhyber PakhtunkhwaPakistan
  3. 3.College of Animal Science and TechnologyNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjing 210095People’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Nutrition AIMS, HospitalMuzaffarabadPakistan
  5. 5.Department of MicrobiologyAbbottabad University of Science and TechnologyAbbottabadPakistan
  6. 6.Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary SciencesThe University of Agriculture PeshawarPeshawarPakistan
  7. 7.Civil Veterinary Hospital Dera Ismail Khan, Directorate of Livestock and Dairy DevelopmentPeshawarPakistan

Personalised recommendations