, Volume 74, Issue 5, pp 533–541 | Cite as

Labelling of individual ependymal areas in the third and fourth ventricle of the human brain: ependymal tables

  • Alexander Mitro
  • Mária LorencováEmail author
  • Renáta Mikušová
  • Paulína Gálfiová
  • Viera Kútna
  • Štefan Polák
Original Article


The ependymal lining of the walls of the human brain third ventricle (3v), fourth ventricle (4v) and aqueductus cerebri (A) was studied. For a better localization of different ependymal areas, they were labelled by periventricular structures that represent a basic and stable part of brain nerve tissue and they are localized most closely to ventricle walls. Labelling of individual ependymal areas of the ventricle walls was composed of the number of a brain ventricle, letters: E – ependyma and abbreviation of a Latin name of the periventricular structure, e.g., the corpus mammillare is “CM“. Labelling of ependyma over the corpus mammillare is” 3vE – CM “Results of labelling of ependymal areas were arranged in the form of tables called “ependymal table “(ET), i.e., ET for 3v; ET for 4v; ET for A. It is believed that labelling of individual ependymal areas according to periventricular structures could be useful for unambiguous labelling of ependyma of the ventricle walls and will help to a mutual comparison of the same types of ependymal areas studied by various authors.


Human central nervous system; walls of the third and fourth brain ventricles; cerebral aqueduct; ependymal areas; ependymal tables 



Ventriculus tertius (third ventricle)


Ventriculus quartus (fourth ventricle)


Aqueductus cerebri (cerebral aqueduct)


Commissura anterior (anterior commissure)


Canalis centralis medullae spinalis (central canal of spinal cord)


Corpus fornicis (fornix body)


Chiasma opticum (optic chiasm)


Corpus mammillare (mammillary body)


Colliculus inferior (inferior colliculus)


Commissura posterior (posterior commissure)


Fossa interpeduncularis (interpeduncular fossa)


Foramen interventriculare (interventricular foramen)


Hypothalamus (hypothalamus)


Infundibulum (infundibulum)


Ventriculus lateralis (lateral ventricle)


Nucleus centromedialis thalami (centromedial nucleus of thalamus)


Nucleus habenularis (habenular nucleus)


Nuclei mediales thalami (medial nuclei of thalamus)


Nuclei praeoptici (preoptic nuclei)


Pons (pons)


Pedunculus cerebri (cerebral peduncle)


Pedunculus cerebellaris superior (peduncle cerebellar superior)


Thalamus, (thalamus)


Tractus mamillothalamicus (mammillothalamic tract)


Velum medullare superius (superior medullary velum)


Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Barnabé-Heider F, Göritz CH, Sabelström H, Takebayashi H, Pfrieger FW, Meletis K, Frisén J (2010) Origin of new glial cells in intact and injured adult spinal cord. Cell Stem Cell 7:470–482. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bruni JE, Montemurro DG, Clattenburg RE, Singh RP (1972) A scanning electron microscopic study of the ependymal surface of the third ventricle of the rabbit, rat, mouse and human brain. Anat Rec 174:407–419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bruni JE, Del Bigio MR, Clattenburg RE (1985) Ependyma: normal and pathological. A review of the literature. Brain Res 356:1–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Del Bigio HB (1995) Ependymal reactions to injury. A review. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 54:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Del Bigio MR (2010) Ependymal cells: biology and pathology. Acta Neuropathol 119:55–73. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Haemmerle CA, Nogueira MI, Watanabe IS (2015) The neural elements in the lining of the ventricular-subventricular zone: making an old story new by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Front Neuroanat 9(134).
  7. Hauwel M, Furon E, Canova C, Griffiths M, Neal J, Gasque P (2005) Innate (inherent) control of brain infection, brain inflammation and brain repair: the role ofmicroglia, astrocytes, "protective" glial stem cells and stromal ependymal cells. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 48:220–233. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hugnot JP, Franzen R (2011) The spinal cord ependymal region: a stem cell niche in the caudal central nervous system. Front Biosci 16:1044–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jiménez AJ, Domínguez-Pinos MD, Guerra MM, Fernández-LlebrezP P-FJM (2014) Structure and function of the ependymal barrier and diseases associated with ependyma disruption. Tissue Barriers 2(e28426):1–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Leonhardt H (1980) Ependym und zirkumventrikuläre Organe. In: Oksche A, Vollrath L (eds) Handbuch der mikroskopischen Anatomie des Menschen. Nervensystem 10 Teil: Neuroglia I. Springer - Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Mathen TC (2008) Regional analysis of the ependyma of the third ventricle of rat by light and electron microscopy. Anat Histol Embryol 37:9–18. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. McAllister JP, Guerra MM, Ruiz LC, Jimenez AJ, Dominguez-Pinos D, Sival D, den Dunnen W, Morales DM, Schmidt RE, Rodriguez EM (2017) Ventricular zone disruption in human neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 76:358–375. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Mitro A (2014) Method of labelling of individual ependymal areas according to periventricular structures of the rat lateral brain ventricles. Biologia 69:1250–1254. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mitro A, Lorencova M, Kutna V, Polak S (2018) Labelling of individual ependymal areas in lateral ventricles of human brain: ependymal tables. Bratisl Lek Listy 119:265–271. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mothe AJ, Tator CH (2005) Proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endogenous ependymal region stem/progenitor cells following minimal spinal cord injury in the adult rat. Neuroscience 131:177–187. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Opalski A (1934) Über lokate Unterscheide im Bau der Ventrikelwände beim Menschen. Z Ges Neurol Psychiatr 149:221–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Schimrigk K (1966) Über die Wandstructur der Seitenventrikel und des dritten Ventrikels beim Menschen. Z Zellforsch 70:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Scott DE, Kozlowski GP, Paull WK, Ramalingam S, Krobisch-Dudley G (1973) Scanning electron microscopy of the human cerebral ventricular system II. The fourth ventricle. Z Zellforsch 139:61–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Studnička FK (1900) Untersuchungen über den Bau des Ependymas der nervösen Zentral-organe. Anat Hefte 15:303–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Veening JG, Barendregt HP (2010) The regulation of brain states by neuroactive substances distributed via the cerebrospinal fluid; a review. Cerebrospinal Fluid Res 7:1. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Wolf J (1966) Mikroskopická technika. SZN, PrahaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Mitro
    • 1
  • Mária Lorencová
    • 1
    Email author
  • Renáta Mikušová
    • 1
  • Paulína Gálfiová
    • 1
  • Viera Kútna
    • 2
  • Štefan Polák
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of MedicineComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovakia
  2. 2.National Institute of Mental HealthKlecanyCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations