, Volume 74, Issue 1, pp 25–33 | Cite as

Influence of auxins on somatic embryogenesis in Haworthia retusa Duval

  • Doo Hwan Kim
  • Kyung Won Kang
  • Iyyakkannu SivanesanEmail author
Original Article


An efficient in vitro plant regeneration method through somatic embryogenesis has been established in Haworthia retusa. Somatic embryos were induced from leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) either alone or in combination with 4 μM thidiazuron (TDZ). Of the four auxins studied, IBA was found to be the most promising in terms of somatic embryo induction, followed in decreasing frequency by 2,4-D, IAA, and NAA. The highest somatic embryo induction (60.7%), with a mean of 20.7 embryos per leaf explant, was observed on MS medium amended with 20 μM IBA. The inclusion of 4 μM TDZ to the auxin-containing medium significantly (p < 0.0001) increased the somatic embryo induction frequency as well as the number of somatic embryos. The best combination for somatic embryogenesis was IBA + TDZ. The highest incidence of somatic embryo induction (100%), with a mean of 55.8 somatic embryos, was obtained on a culture medium containing 16 μM IBA + 4 μM TDZ. Somatic embryos germinated best on MS medium supplemented with 2 μM gibberellic acid. Morphological variations were observed among the regenerated plantlets. Well-developed plantlets obtained from germination media were acclimatized in the greenhouse.


Auxin Leaf explants Gibberellic acid Somatic embryos Thidiazuron 



This article was supported by the KU Research Professor Program of Konkuk University.

Author contribution

DHK, KWK, and IS conceived and designed the experiments and wrote the paper. IS performed the somatic embryogenesis studies, and KWK performed the greenhouse experiments. All authors have seen and agreed to the submitted manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Plant Science and Biodiversity Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Bioresources and Food ScienceKonkuk UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Babo Orchid FarmNamyangju-siSouth Korea

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