Molecular Prevalence and Epidemiology of Trypanosoma evansi Among Cattle in Peninsular Malaysia

  • Shola David Ola-FadunsinEmail author
  • Fufa Ido Gimba
  • Donea Abdurazak Abdullah
  • Faez Jesse Firdaus Abdullah
  • Rehana Abdullah Sani
Original Paper



Animal trypanosomiasis (Surra) caused by Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) is known to be one of the important haemoprotozoan parasites that causes great economical loss on animal production due to mortality and loss of condition.


A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with T. evansi infection among cattle in Peninsular Malaysia. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed on 1045 blood samples collected from 43 farms. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on risk factors associated with T. evansi prevalence. The RoTat 1.2 set of primers was used to amplify products of 205 base pair.


The overall prevalence was found to be 17.9% (187/1045; 95% CI = 15.66–20.31). Trypanosoma evansi was detected among cattle in all the States of Peninsular Malaysia. Breeds of cattle and closeness to waste area, where the risk factors significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the PCR positivity of T. evansi among cattle in Peninsular Malaysia.


This appears to be the first time a comprehensive survey on the prevalence and risk factors of T. evansi infection in cattle using molecular tools is been carried out in the entire states of Peninsular Malaysia. The findings from this study will provide baseline information on the molecular prevalence of the haemoflagellate and its associated risk factors among cattle for an improved beef and dairy production in Peninsular Malaysia.


Cattle Peninsular Malaysia Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Risk factors RoTat 1.2 gene Trypanosoma evansi 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest among them.

Ethical Approval

This study protocol was approved by the Research and Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia. International, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the collection of blood samples from cattle were adequately followed.


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Copyright information

© Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of IlorinIlorinNigeria
  3. 3.Avian Influenza Control Project Animal Health Component Desk OfficeTaraba State Ministry of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesJalingoNigeria
  4. 4.Department of Animal Production TechniquesNorthern Technical UniversityMosulIraq

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