In Vitro Anticoccidial Activity of Olive Pulp (Olea europaea L. var. Chemlal) Extract Against Eimeria Oocysts in Broiler Chickens

  • Nedjima Debbou-Iouknane
  • Cristina Nerín
  • Meriem Amrane
  • Menana Ghemghar
  • Khodir Madani
  • Abdelhanine AyadEmail author
Original Paper



The objective of the present study was to investigate in vitro anticoccidial effect of olive pulp (Olea europaea L var. Chemlal) extract on the destruction of Eimeria spp. oocysts isolated from infected chickens naturally.

Materials and methods

The olive pulp (OP) powder was stirred manually in aqueous ethanol in preparation for extraction using the microwave-assisted extraction system. The identification of the phenolic compounds was obtained by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC–ESI–MS). The treatment of Eimeria oocyst with OP extract and standard compounds (quercetin and oleuropein) leads to their lysis as shown by the release of substances absorbing at 273 nm.


Our results showed that the maximum number of reduced oocysts was recorded after 8 h of incubation of optimum OP extract, quercetin and oleuropein for different periods of time. Also, the number of Eimeria oocysts decreased considerably with increase concentrations after adding the optimum of OP extract in concentration ranging from 0.023 to 0.371 mg/ml. Positive correlation between the optimum OP extract concentrations and the number of Eimeria oocysts reduced was R2 = 0.959. From this in vitro experiment, it can be concluded that the OP extract possesses an anti-Eimeria spp activity.


To our knowledge, this is the first time that quercetin and oleuropein were tested to evaluate their anticoccidial activity. The findings of this study showed that phenolic compound of OP extract tested separately possesses anti-Eimeria spp. effect. Further studies should be carried out to test its in vivo efficacy of the OP bioactive compounds in broiler chickens.


Olea europea L. var. Chemlal Co-products Anticoccidial activity Chickens In vitro 


Author contributions

NID carried out the experimental work and wrote the manuscript. CN participated in biochemistry analysis of extract plant and reviewed the manuscript. MA, MG and KM contributed in technical assistance of plant extraction. AA designed, supervised the experimental study and reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no potential conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

Ethics committee approval was received for this study from the scientific committee of Faculty of Life and Nature Sciences, University A. Mira, Bejaia, Algeria.


  1. 1.
    Lillehoj HS, Okamura M (2003) Host immunity and vaccine development to coccidia and Salmonella infections in chickens. Poultry Sci 40:151–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Razzaq A, Ali T, Saghir A, Arshad S, Cheema A (2011) Training needs assessment of poultry farmers in tehsil Faisalabad. J Anim Plant Sci 21:629–631Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dalloul RA, Lillehoj HS (2006) Poultry coccidiosis: recent advancements in control measures and vaccine development. Expert Rev Vaccines 5:143–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allen PC, Fetterer RH (2002) Recent advances in biology and immunobiology of Eimeria species and in diagnosis and control of infection with these coccidian parasites of poultry. Clin Mic Rev 15:58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shivaramaiah C, Barta JR, Hernandez-Velasco X, Téllez G, Hargis BM (2014) Coccidiosis: recent advancements in the immunobiology of Eimeria species, preventive measures, and the importance of vaccination as a control tool against these Apicomplexan parasites. Vet Med Res Reports 5:23–34Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blake DP, Tomley FM (2014) Securing poultry production from the ever-present Eimeria challenge. Trends Parasitol 30:12–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abbas RZ, Iqba Z, Khan MN, Zafar MA, Zia MA (2010) Anticoccidial activity of Curcumalonga L. in broiler chickens. Braz Arch Biotech 53:63–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abbas RZ, Iqbal Z, Blake D, Khan MN, Saleemi MK (2011) Anticoccidial drug resistance in fowl coccidia: the state of play revisited. World’s Poultry Sci J 67:337–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alnassan AA, Thabet A, Daugschies A, Bangoura B (2015) In-Vitro efficacy of allicin on chicken Eimeria tenella sporozoites. Parasitol Res 114:625–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ogbe AO, Mgbojikwe LO, Abdu PA, Atawodi SE (2008) Organ and carcass weight variation and histopathological changes in Eimeria tenella infected broiler chickens treated with aqueous extract of a wild mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum). Electron J Env Agri Food Chem 7:2906–2913Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nogueira VA, França TN, Peixoto PV (2009) Ionophore poisoningin animals. Pesq Vet Bras 29:191–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hady NMM, Zaki MM (2012) Efficacy of some herbal feed additives on performance and control of cecal coccidiosis in broilers. APCBEE Procedia 4:163–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Masood S, Abbas RZ, Iqbal Z, Mansoor MK, Sindhu ZUD, Zia MA, Khan JA (2013) Role of natural antioxidants for the control of coccidiosis in poultry. Pak Vet J 33(4):401–407Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), Algeria. Le renouveau agricole et rural en marche. Revue et perspectives. Published 15 July 2018. please mention here the exact URL, this link took me to the ministry website
  15. 15.
    Vega-Galvez A, Miranda M, Punte Diaz L, Lopez L, Uribe E, Rodriguez K (2010) Effective moisture diffusivity determination and mathematical modeling of the drying curves of the olive-waste cake. Bioresour Technol 101:7265–7270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yu J, Zhang J, He J, Liu Z, Yu Z (2009) Combinations of mild physical or chemical pretreatment with biological pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of rice hull. Bioresour Technol 100:903–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Christian MS, Sharper VA, Hoberman AM, Seng JE, Fu L, Covell D, Diener RM, Bitler CM, Crea R (2004) The toxicity profile of hydrolyzed aqueous olive pulp extract. Drug Chem Toxicol 27:309–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    De Pablos LM, Santos MFBD, Montero E, Garcia-Granados A, Parra A, Osuna A (2010) Anticoccidial activity of maslinic acid against infection with Eimeria tenella in chickens. Parasitol Res 107:601–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gacioui F, Hadj Amar Z, Oussaid S (2013) Extraction, optimisation et pouvoir antioxydant des polyphenols des feuilles d’oleastre. Nut Santé 2:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sayehban P, Seidavi A, Dadashbeiki M, Ghorbani A, Araujo WAG, Albino LFT (2016) Effects of different levels of two types of olive pulp with or without exogenous enzyme supplementation on broiler performance and economic parameters. Braz J Poultry Sci 18:489–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dahmoune F, Nayak B, Moussi K, Remini H, Madani K (2014) Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Myrtus communis L. leaves. Food Chem 166:585–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Georgé S, Brat P, Alter P, Amiot MJ (2005) Rapid determination of polyphenols and vitamin C in plant-derived products. J Agric Food Chem 53:1370–1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Quettier-Deleu C, Gressier B, Vasseur J, DineT Brunet C, Luyckx M et al (2000) Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) hulls and flour. J Ethnopharmacol 72:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vermerris W, Nicholson R (2006) The role of phenols in plant defence. In: Vermerris W, Nicholson R (eds) Phenolic compound biochemistry, Chapter 6. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 211–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 26:1231–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brand Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C (1995) Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT Food Sci Technol 28:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Oyaizu M (1986) Studies on products of browning reactions: antioxidative activities of product of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nut 44:307–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carvalho FS, Wenceslau AA, Teixeira M, Alexandre J, Carencro M, Diego A, Milo AD, George B, Albuquerque R (2011) Diagnosis of Eimeria species using traditional and molecular methods in field studies. Vet Parasitol 176:95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rhayour K, Bouchikhi T, Tantaoui-Elaraki A, Sendide K, Remmal A (2003) The mechanism of bacterial action of oregano and clove essential oils and of their phenolic major components on Escherichiacoli and Bacillussubtillis. J Essent Oil Res 15:286–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Remmal A, Achahbar S, Bouddine L, Chami F, Chami N (2013) Oocysticidal effect of essential oil components against chicken Eimeria oocysts. Int J Vet Med 2013:599816Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Remmal A, Achahbar S, Bouddine L, Chami N, Chami F (2011) In-Vitro destruction of Eimeria oocysts by essential oils. Vet Parasitol 182:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Becerril R, Nerín C, Gómez-Lus R (2012) Evaluation of bacterial resistance to essential oils and antibiotics after exposure to oregano and cinnamon essential oils. Foodborne Pathog Dis 9(8):699–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ola-Fadunsin SD, Ademola IO (2014) Anticoccidial effects of Morindalucida acetone ex tracts on broiler chickens naturally infected with Eimeria species. Phar Biol 52:330–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Molan AL, Zhuojian L, De S (2009) Effect of pine bark (Pinus radiata) extracts on sporulation of coccidian oocysts. Folia Parasitol 56:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Narsih KS, Wignyanto WS (2012) Identification of aloin and saponin and chemical composition of volatile constituents from Aloe vera (L.) Peel. J Agric Food Tech 2:79–84Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pieri FA, Silva VO, Vargas FS, Veiga Junior VF, Moreira MAS (2014) Antimicrobial activity of Copaiferalangsdorffii oil and evaluation of its most bioactive fraction against bacteria of dog’s dental plaque. Pak Vet J 34:165–169Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Xiao CW, Ji QA, Rajput ZI, Wei Q, Liu Y, Bao GL (2014) Antifungal efficacy of Phellodendronamurense ethanol extract against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in rabbits. Pak Vet J 34:219–223Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Habibi H, Firouzi S, Nili H, Razavi M, Asadi SL, Daneshi S (2016) Anticoccidial effects of herbal extracts on Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens: in-vitro and in-vivo study. J Parasit Dis 40:401–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Drãnga L, Györke A, Ferreira JFS, Pop IA, Dunca I, Drăgan M, Mircean V, Dan I, Cozma V (2014) Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa). Acta Vet Scand 56:22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Messai A, Bensegueni A, Abdeldjelil M, Agabou A, Redouane-Salah S (2014) Effects of white wormwood (Artemisia herba-alba Asso) during an experimental coccidiosis in broilers. Ann Biol Res 5:61–66Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yao LH, Jiang YM, Shi J, Tomas-barberán FA, Datta N, Sinsaganusong R, Chen SS (2004) Flavonoids in food and their health Benefits. Plant Foods Human Nut 59:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ghedira K (2005) Les flavonoïdes: structure, propriétés biologiques, rôle prophylactique et emplois en thérapeutique. Phytothérapie 4:162–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ghedadba N, Hambaba L, Ayachi A, Aberkane MC, Bousselsela H, Oueld Moukhtar SM (2015) Polyphénols totaux, activités antioxydante et antimicrobienne des feuilles de Marrubium deserti de Noé. Phytothérapie 13:118–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Liu Y, Young K, Rakotondraibe LH, Brodie PJ, Wilev JD, Cassera MB, Callmander MW, Rakotondrajaona R, Rakotobe E, Rasamisson VE, Tendvke K, Shen Yand Kingston DG (2015) Antiproliferative compounds from cleistanthus boivinianus from the Madagascar dry forest. J Nat Prod 78:1543–1547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dai Y, Liu Y, Rakotondraible LH (2018) Novel bioactive natural products isolated from madagascar plants and marine organisms (2009–2017). Chem Pharm Bull 66:469–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kayser O, Albrecht FK, Simon LC (2003) Natural products as potential antiparasitic drugs. Parasitol Res 90(2):S55–S62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nikmehr B, Ghaznavi H, Rahbar A, Sadr S, Mehrzadi S (2014) In-Vitro anti–leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves. Chinese J Nat Med 12:423–427Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sülsen VP, Puente V, Papademetrio D, Batlle A, Martino VS, Frank FM, Lombardo ME (2016) Mode of action of the sesquiterpene lactones psilostachyin and psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi. PLoS One 11:e0150526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ramdane F, Essid R, Fares N, El Ouassis D, Aziz S, Mahammed MH, Ould Hadj MD, Limam F (2017) Antioxidant antileishmanial cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of a local plant Myrtus nivellei from Algeria Sahara. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 7:702–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Panda KS, Luyten W (2018) Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India. Parasite 25:10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kerboeuf D, Riou M, Guégnard F (2008) Flavonoids and related compounds in parasitic disease control. Mini Rev Med Chem 8:116–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mendonça-Filho RR, Rodriguez IA, Alviano DS, Santos AL, Soares RM, Alviano CS, Lopes AH, Rosa Mdo S (2004) Leishmanicidal activity of polyphenolic-rich extract from husk fiber of Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae). Res Microbiol 155:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dabrosca D, Pacifico S, Cefarelli G, Mastellone C, Fiorentino A (2007) Limoncella apple, an Italian apple cultivar: phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. Food Chem 104:1333–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ghanbari R, Anwar F, Alkharfy KM, Gilani AH, Saari N (2012) Valuable nutrients and functional bioactives in different parts of olive (Olea europaea L.)—a review. Int J Mol Sci 13(3):3291–3340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Morelló JR, Vuorela S, Rome MP, Motilva MJ, Heinonen M (2005) Antioxidant activity of olive pulp and olive oil phenolic compounds of the Arbequina cultivar. J Agric Food Chem 53:2002–2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Moudache M, Colon M, Nerín C, Zaidi F (2016) Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive by-products and antioxidant film containing olive leaf extract. Food Chem 212:521–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Moudache M, Nerín C, Colón M, Zaidi F (2017) Antioxidant effect of an innovative active plastic film containing olive leaves extract on fresh pork meat and its evaluation by Raman spectroscopy. Food Chem 229:98–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Somova LI, Shode FO, Ramnanan P, Nadar A (2003) Antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of triterpenoids isolated from Olea europaea, subspecies africana leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 84:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Skerget M, Kotnik P, Hadolin M, Hras AR, SimonicM Knez Z (2005) Phenols, proanthocyanidins, flavones and flavonols in some plant materials and their antioxidant activities. Food Chem 89:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bougatef A, Hajji M, Balti R, Lassoued L, Triki-Ellouz Y, Nasri M (2009) Antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of smooth hound (Mustelus mustelus) muscle protein hydrolysates obtained by gastrointestinal proteases. Food Chem 114:1198–1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tamatopoulos S, Katsoyannos E, Chatzilazarou A (2014) Antioxidant activity and thermal stability of oleuropein and related phenolic compounds of olive leaf extract after separation and concentrations by salting- out- assisted cloud point extraction. Antioxidants 3:229–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yua JJ, Wang CZ, Ye JZ, Tao R, Zhang YS (2015) Enzymatic hydrolysis of oleuropein from Olea europea (Olive) leaf extract and antioxidant activities. Molecules 20:2903–2921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cordero JG, GarcíaRE, Avila J, Gargini R, Escudero VG (2018) Beneit of oleuropein aglycone for Alzheimer’s disease by promoting autophagy. Oxid Med Cell longev 2018:5010741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wang L, Tu YCh, Lian TW, Hung JT, Yen JH, Wu J (2006) Distinctive antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects of flavonols. J Agric Food Chem 54:9798–9804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lafka TI, Lazou Andriana E, Sinanoglou Vassilia J, Lazos Evangelos S (2013) Phenolic extracts from wild olive leaves and their potential as edible oils antioxidants. Food 2:18–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Miguel MG (2010) Antioxidant activity of medicinal and aromatic plants. A review. Flavour Fragr J 25:291–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kumaran A, Karunakaran RJ (2007) In-vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of five Phyllanthus species from India. LWT Food Sci Technol 40:344–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bougandoura N, Bendimered N (2012) Evaluation de l’activité antioxydante des extraits aqueux et méthaloniques de Satureja calamintha spp. Nepeta (L.) Briq. Nat Techn 9:14–19Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Xie P, Huang L, Zhang C, Zhang Y (2015) Phenolic compositions, and antioxidant performance of olive leaf and fruit (Olea europaea L.) extracts and their structure activity relationships. J Funct Foods 16:460–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ramos P, Santos S, Guerra Ă, Guerreiro O, Felício L, Jerónimo E, Silvestre A, Pascoal C, Duarte M (2013) Valorization of olive mill residues: antioxidant and breast cancer anti-proliferative activities of hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts derived from olive oil by-products. Ind Crops Prod 46:359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gadelhaq SM, Arafab WM, Abolhadid SM (2018) In-Vitro activity of natural and chemical products on sporulation of Eimeria species oocysts of chickens. Vet Parasitol 251:12–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kalmobé J, Ndjonka D, Boursou D, Vildina JD, Liebau E (2017) Phytochemical analysis and in-vitro anthelmintic activity of Lophira lanceolata (Ochnaceae) on the bovine parasite Onchocerca ochengi and on drug resistant strains of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. BMC Complement Altern Med 17:404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fadili K, Amalich S, Ndedianhoua SK, Bouachrine M, Mahjoubi M, El Hilali F, Zair T (2015) Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of two species from Moroccan High Atlas: rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus satureioides. Int J Innovation Sci Res 17:24–33Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kandouli C, Cassien M, Mercie A, Delhedde C, Ricquerbourg E, Stocker P, Mekaouche M, Leulmi Z, Mechakra A, Thétiot-Laurent S, Culcasi M, Pietri S (2017) Antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of water and n-butanol soluble extracts from Saharian Anvillea radiate in high-fat-diet fed mice. J Ethnopharmacol 207:251–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fard MT, Arulselvan P, Karthivashan G, Adam SK, Fakurazi S (2015) Bioactiveextract from Moringa oleifera inhibits the pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages. Pham Mag 11:556–563Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Abdel-Latif M, El- Shahawi G, Aboelhadid SM, Abdel-Tawab H (2017) Modulation of murine intestinal immunity by Moringa oleifera extract in experimental hymenolepiasis nana. J Helminthol 6:1–12Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Manso S, Cacho-Nerin F, Becerril R, Nerín C (2013) Combined analytical and microbiological tools to study the effect on Aspergillus flavus of cinnamon essential oil contained in food packaging. Food Control 30(2):370–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Clemente I, Aznar M, Silva F, Nerín C (2016) Antimicrobial properties and mode of action of mustard and cinnamon essential oils and their combination against foodborne bacteria. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 36:26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Clemente I, Aznar M, Salafranca J, Nerín C (2017) Raman spectroscopy, electronic microscopy and SPME-GC-MS to elucidate the mode of action of a new antimicrobial food packaging material. Anal Bioanal Chem 409(4):1037–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tasdemir D, Kaiser M, Brun R, Yardley V, Schmidt TJ, Tosun F, Rüedi P (2006) Antileishmanial activities of flavonoids and their analogues: in-vitro, in-vivo, structure-activity relationship, and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    EdgecombeSC StretchGL, Hayball PJ (2000) Oleuropein, an antioxidant polyphenol from olive oil, is poorly absorbed from isolated perfused rat intestine. J Nut 130:2996–3002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gourama H, Bullerman LB (1987) Effects of oleuropein on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Unknown J 20:226–228Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Atawodi SE, Liman ML, Onyike EO (2013) Antioxidant effects of Tamarindus indica following acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury. Int J Agric Bio 15:410–418Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kurkure NV, Kolte SW, Bhandarkar AG, Kalorey DR (2006) Evaluation of herbal coccidiostat “coxynil” in broilers. Ind J Exp Biol 44:740–744Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Chandrakesan P, Muralidharan K, Kumar VD, Ponnudurai G, Harikrishnan TJ, Rani KSVN (2009) Efficacy of a herbal complex against caecal coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Vet Arh 79:199–203Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Allen PC, Danforth HD (1998) Effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acid esters on coccidiosis in chickens. Poultry Sci 77:1631–1635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Peek H, Landman, WJM (2011) Coccidiosis in poultry: anticoccidial products, vaccines and other prevention strategies. Vet Q 31(3):143–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    El-Banna HA, El-Bahy MM, El-Zorba HY, El-Hady M (2005) Anticoccidial efficacy of drinking water soluble diclazuril on experimental and field coccidiosis in broiler chickens. J Vet Med A 52:287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ruiz A, Guedes AC, Muñoz MC, Molina JM, Hermosilla C, Martín S, Hernández YI, Hernández A, Pérez D, Matos L, López AM, Taubert A (2012) Control strategies using diclazuril against coccidiosis in goat kids. Parasitol Res 110(6):2131–2136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Conway DP, McKenzie ME (2007) Poultry coccidiosis and effect of coccidiosis diagnostic and testing procedures, 3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing, AmesCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nedjima Debbou-Iouknane
    • 1
  • Cristina Nerín
    • 2
  • Meriem Amrane
    • 3
  • Menana Ghemghar
    • 3
  • Khodir Madani
    • 3
  • Abdelhanine Ayad
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environment Biological Sciences, Faculty of Nature and Life SciencesUniversity of BejaiaBejaïaAlgeria
  2. 2.Aragón Institute for Engineering Research (I3A)University of ZaragozaSaragossaSpain
  3. 3.Laboratory of Biomathematics, Biochemistry, Biophysics and Scientometrics (L3BS)University of BejaiaBejaïaAlgeria

Personalised recommendations