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The once daily non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) efavirenz was recently recommended for inclusion in the HIV infection treatment guidelines of the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) as a preferred agent for treatment of established HIV infection in combination with 2 nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). * This is the first time the panel has recommended a protease inhibitor-sparing combination containing a NNRTI as a first-line treatment option. New data presented at the 9th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases [ Berlin, Germany; March 1999 ] confirm these recommendations. There are currently no data showing that efavirenz can reduce transmission of HIV through blood contamination or sexual contact. However, data presented for the first time at the conference show that efavirenz reduces levels of HIV in the genital tract of women.