American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 97–104 | Cite as

Levamisole in Dermatology

A Review
  • Noah Scheinfeld
  • Joshua D. Rosenberg
  • Jeffrey M. Weinberg
Review Article


Levamisole, an anthelmintic agent with a wide range of immunomodulatory actions, has been used successfully as monotherapy and an adjunct to treatment in a variety of diseases. Since 1990, combination therapy of levamisole and fluorouracil has played an important role in the treatment of resected Dukes stage C adenocarcinoma of the colon. Because of its immunomodulating effects levamisole has been used in a wide range of diseases with and without success. In dermatologic disease levamisole has been successfully used in the treatment of parasitic, viral and bacterial infections including leprosy, collagen vascular diseases, inflammatory skin diseases and children with impaired immune a variety of reasons. It has also been used in combination with other drugs for treating a number of dermatologic disorders, e.g. in combination with cimetidine for treating recalcitrant warts, with prednisolone for treating lichen planus, erythema multiforme and aphthous ulcers of the mouth. Adverse affects of levamisole are mild and infrequent and include rash, nausea, abdominal cramps, taste alteration, alopecia, arthralgia, and a flu-like syndrome. It can rarely cause agranulocytosis. More studies need to be undertaken to study the full potential of levamisole in dermatologic diseases.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Cimetidine Leprosy Levamisole Lichen Planus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.


  1. 1.
    Assem ESK. Textbook of immunopharmacology. Dale MM, Foreman JC, editors. London: Blackwell Science Publications, 1984: 333–9Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gennaro AR. Remington: the science and practice of pharmacy. 19th ed. Easton (PA): Mack Publishing Co., 1995: 101–2Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hadden JW. T-cell adjuvants. Int J Immunopharmacol 1994; 16: 703–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Szeto C, Gillespie KM, Mathieson PW. Levamisole induces interleukin-18 and shifts type 1/type 2 cytokine balance. Immunology 2000; 100: 217–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Renoux G. The general immunopharmacology of levamisole. Drugs 1980; 19: 89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sun A, Chiang CP. Levamisole and/or Chinese medicinal herbs can modulate the serum level of squamous cell carcinoma associated antigen in patients with erosive oral lichen planus. J Oral Pathol Med 2001; 30: 542–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moertel CG, Fleming TR, Macdonald JS, et al. Levamisole and fluorouracil for adjuvant therapy of resected colon carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1990; 322: 352–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alsaran K, Grisaru S, Stephens D, et al. Levamisole vs cyclophosphamide for frequently-relapsing steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Clin Nephrol 2001; 56: 289–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Renoux G. Modulation of immunity by levamisole. J Pharmacol Ther 1978; 2: 288–96Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sweetman SC. Martindale: the complete drug reference. 33rd ed. Chicago (IL): Pharmaceutical Press, 2002: 1253–4Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roberts G. Levamisole. IPCS INCHEM Canada [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2004 Mar 19]Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Symoens J, Veys E, Mielants M, et al. Adverse reactions to levamisole. Cancer Treat Rep 1978; 62: 1721–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hook CC, Kimmel DW, Kvols LK, et al. Mutlifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy with 5-fluorouracil and levamisole. Ann Neurol 1992; 31: 262–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kimmel DW, Schutt AJ. Mutlifocal leukoencephalopathy: occurrence during 5-fluorouracil and levamisole therapy and resolution after discontinuation of chemotherapy. Mayo Clin Proc 1993; 68: 363–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lucia P, Pocek M, Passacantando A, et al. Multifocal leukoencephalopathy induced by levamisole [letter]. Lancet 1996; 348: 1450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Secher L, Permin H, Skov PS, et al. Levamisole-induced hypersensitivity. Acta Derm Venereol 1978; 58: 372–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kirby JD, Black M, McGibbon D. Levamisole-induced lichenoid eruptions. J R Soc Med 1980; 73: 208–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Clavere P, Bonnafoux-Clavere A, Delrous JL, et al. Fixed pigmented erythema caused by levamisole administration. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1994; 121: 238–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fellner MJ, Ledesma GN. Leg ulcers secondary to drug reactions. Clin Dermatol 1990; 8: 144–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Scheinberg MA, Bezerra JB, Almeida FA, et al. Cutaneous necrotising vasculitis induced by levamisole [letter]. BMJ 1978; 18: 408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Powell J, Grech H, Holder J. A boy with cutaneous necrosis occurring during treatment with levamisole. Clin Exp Dermatol 2002; 27: 32–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rongioletti F, Ghio L, Ginevri F, et al. Purpura of the ears: a distinctive vasculopathy with circulating autoantibodies complicating long-term treatment with levamisole in children. Br J Dermatol 1999; 140: 948–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Menni S, Pistritto G, Gianotti R, et al. Ear lobe bilateral necrosis by levamisole-induced occlusive vasculitis in a pediatric patient. Pediatr Dermatol 1997; 14: 477–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Papageorgiou P, Kesarwala HH, Alcid DV, et al. Levamisole in chronic pyoderma. J Clin Lab Immunol 1982; 8: 121–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Djawari D, Hornstein OP. Recurrent chronic pyoderma with cellular immunodeficiency: successful therapy by levamisole. Dermatologica 1980; 161: 116–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Svejgaard E, Christiansen AH, Stahl D, et al. Clinical and immunological studies in chronic dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum. Acta Derm Venereol 1984; 64: 493–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Butler PG. Levamisole therapy of chronic Leishmania tropica. J Trop Med Hyg 1978; 81: 221–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Paul Y, Singh J. Cutaneous larva migrans in an infant. Indian Pediatr 1994; 31: 1089–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Namazi MR. Levamisole: a safe and economical weapon against pediculosis. Int J Dermatol 2001; 40: 292–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Raptopoulou GM, Kountouras J, Goulis G. Levamisole in the treatment of chronic brucellosis. J Immunopharmacol 1980; 2: 85–97Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Haneke E. Levamisole therapy under different dermatological indications. Z Hautkr 1979; 54: 408–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Russell AS, Brisson E, Grace M. A double-blind controlled trial of levamisole in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. J Infect Dis 1978; 137: 597–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Constantopoulos A, Lagos P, Benetos S, et al. Disseminated neonatal herpes simplex infection treated with levamisole: report of a case. Dermatologica 1980; 160: 121–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Smirnov IuK, Shishov AS, Bagrov FI, et al. Levamisole in the treatment of different forms of herpes zoster. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 1983; 83: 511–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Parsad D, Pandhi R, Juneja A, et al. Cimetidine and levamisole versus cimetidine alone for recalcitrant warts in children. Pediatr Dermatol 2001; 18: 349–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Parsad D, Saini R, Negi KS. Comparison of combination of cimetidine and levamisole with cimetidine alone in the treatment of recalcitrant warts. Australas J Dermatol 1999; 40: 93–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Amer M, Tosson Z, Soliman A, et al. Verrucae treated by levamisole. Int J Dermatol 1991; 30: 738–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Saul A, Sanz R, Gomez M. Treatment of multiple viral warts with levamisole. Int J Dermatol 1980; 19: 342–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schou M, Helin P. Levamisole in a double-blind study: no effect on warts. Acta Derm Venereol 1977; 57: 449–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Patrone F, Dallegri F, Bonvini E, et al. Disorders of neutrophil function in children with recurrent pyogenic infections. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 1982; 171: 113–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Businco L, Laurenti F, Rossi P, et al. A child with atopic features, raised serum IgE, and recurrent infection treated with levamisole. Arch Dis Child 1981; 56: 60–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Verhaegen H, De Cree J, De Cock W, et al. Levamisole treatment of a child with severe aphthous stomatitis and neutropenia. Postgrad Med J 1976; 52: 511–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Prakash MS, Rao VM, Reddy V. Effect of levamisole on the immune status of malnourished children. J Trop Pediatr 1998; 44: 165–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ellegaard J, Boesen AM. Restoration of defective cellular immunity by levamisole in a patient with immunoblastic lymphadenopathy: levamisole therapy for cellular immunologic deficiency with high IgE values. Scand J Haematol 1976; 17: 36–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sharma L, Thalliath GH, Girgia HS, et al. A comparative evaluation of levamisole in leprosy. Indian J Lepr 1985; 57: 11–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bera DK, Sen PC. Effect of levamisole on bacterial index in BL and LL leprosy. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 1985; 53: 198–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Arora SK, Singh G, Sen PC. Immuno-stimulatory effect of levamisole in borderline leprosy cases. Indian J Lepr 1985; 57: 22–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Haneke E. Levamisole treatment of acne fulminans. Z Hautkr 1981; 56: 1160–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lu SY, Chen WJ, Eng HL. Response to levamisole and low-dose prednisolone in 41 patients with chronic oral ulcers: a 3-year open clinical trial and follow-up study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1998; 86: 438–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lozada F, Silverman S, Cram D. Pemphigus vulgaris: a study of six cases treated with levamisole and prednisone. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1982; 54: 161–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mashkilleson NA. Exacerbation of the course of pemphigus vulgaris after taking levamisole. Vestn Dermatol Venerol 1980; Oct (10): 46–8Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brzezinska-Wcislo L, Krauze E, Suwala-Jurczyk B. Levamisole in the treatment of crural ulcers. Przegl Dermatol 1990; 77: 51–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jautova J, Jarcuskova D, Dubivska M, et al. Immunostimulation therapy in patients with alopecia areata. Bratisl Lek Listy 1995; 96: 160–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    de Metieux P, Spitler LE, Paulus HE. Treatment of Behcet syndrome with levamisole. Arthritis Rheum 1981; 24: 64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pachor ML, Bambara LM, Lunardi C, et al. Behcet’s syndrome: description of a clinical case. Minerva Med 1982; 73: 3411–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lozada-Nur F, Cram D, Gorsky M. Clinical response to levamisole in thirty-nine patients with erythema multiforme: an open prospective study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1992; 74: 294–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lozada-Nur F, Gorsky M, Silverman Jr S. Oral erythema multiforme: clinical observations and treatment of 95 patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1989; 67: 36–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lozada F. Levamisole in the treatment of erythema multiforme: a double-blind trial in fourteen patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1982; 53: 28–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Scherak O, Smolen J, Kolarz G, et al. Clinical experience with levamisole treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Wien Klin Wochenschr 1979; 91: 758–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tay C. Eosinophilic arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999; 38: 1188–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Runge LA, Pinals RS, Tomar RH. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with levamisole: long-term results and immune changes. Ann Rheum Dis 1979; 38: 122–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rondier J, Cayla J, Tron F, et al. Controlled trial of levamisole in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical and immunological study of 22 cases. Nouv Presse Med 1978; 7: 3023–7, 3029–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Basch CM, Spitler LE, Engleman EG, et al. Cellular immune reactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and effects of levamisole. J Rheumatol 1977; 4: 377–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Huskisson EC, Scott J, Balme HW, et al. Immunostimulant therapy with levamisole for rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 1976; I: 393–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Veys EM, Mielants H, Verbruggen G. Goldsalts, levamisole and D-penicillamine as first choice slow-acting antirheumatic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis: a long-term follow-up study. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1987; 5: 111–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lu SY, Chen WJ, Eng HL. Dramatic response to levamisole and low-dose prednisolone in 23 patients with oral lichen planus: a 6-year prospective follow-up study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1995; 80: 705–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pasricha JS, Khera V. Effect of prolonged treatment with levamisole on vitiligo with limited and slow-spreading disease. Int J Dermatol 1994; 33: 584–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sanchez MR. Miscellaneous treatments: thalidomide, potassium iodide, levamisole, clofazimine, colchicine, and D-penicillamine. Clin Dermatol 2000; 18: 131–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Medvedev IuA, Alekhin EK, Leshchenko VM. Use of immunostimulants in the treatment of a zooanthroponotic trichophyton infection. Vestn Dermatol Venerol 1987; 11: 70–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Butler PG. Levamisole and immune response phenomena in cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1982; 6: 1070–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Makled M, Rifaat M, Azab M, et al. Determination of healing response by immunostimulant therapy (levamisole) in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Chemioterapia 1987; 6 (2 Suppl.): 214–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chong H. Oriental sore: a look at trends in and approaches to the treatment of leishmaniasis. Int J Dermatol 1986; 25: 615–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mukovozova LA. Effect of levamisole on the cellular and humoral immunity indices in patients with chronic brucellosis. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1988; 10: 45–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mukovozova LA. Effect of levamisole on the cellular immunity indices of patients with active forms of brucellosis. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1988; 6: 61–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Thornes RD. Chronic human brucellosis and anti-anergic treatment with levamisole. Vet Rec 1977; 101: 27–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Katzung BG. Basic and clinical pharmacology. 8th ed. Norwalk (CT): Lange Medical Books/McGraw Hill, 2001Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    National Center for Infectious Diseases. Infectious disease index [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2003 Mar 26]Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Dale MM, Foreman JC, editors. Textbook of immunopharmacology. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1984: 333–9Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Seidlin M, Straus SE. Treatment of mucocutaneous herpes simplex infection. Clin Dermatol 1984; 2: 100–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Donabedian H, Gallin JI. The hyperimmunoglobulin E recurrent-infection (Job’s) syndrome: a review of the NIH experience and the literature. Medicine 1983; 62: 195–208Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Vanheule R, De Cree J, Adriaenssens K, et al. Levamisole therapy for cellular immunologic deficiency with high IgE values. Acta Paediatr Belg 1976; 29: 41–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    McManus AT. Examination of neutrophil function in a rat model of decreased host resistance following burn trauma. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5 Suppl. 5: S898–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Stinnett JD, Loose LD, Miskell P, et al. Synthetic immunomodulators for prevention of fatal infections in burned guinea pig model. Ann Surg 1983; 198: 53–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Matachin EN, Atiasov NI, Zuev PD, et al. Methods of correction of humoral and cellular immunity in patients with burns and erosive-ulcerative lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek 1990; 144: 44–9Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Katoch K. Immunotherapy of leprosy. Indian J Lepr 1996; 68: 349–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Martinez D, Zaias N. Levamisole as adjunct to dapsone in leprosy. Lancet 1976; II: 209–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Carli-Basset C, Renoux M, Pauley AM, et al. Correlation between the immune reaction and clinical course in a bullous pemphigoid case treated with levamisole. LARC Med 1982; 2 (5): 400–41Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Liapon AO, Rutshtein LG, Roitburd MF, et al. Levamisole (decaris) in the complex treatment of different clinical forms of psoriasis. Vestn Dermatol Venerol 1984; 4: 61–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sehgal VN, Jain S, Kumar S, et al. Generalized lichen nitidus in a child’s response to cetirizine dihydrochloride/levamisol [letter]. Australas J Dermatol 1998; 39: 60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Boyd AS. New and emerging therapies for lichenoid dermatoses. Dermatol Clin 2000; 18: 21–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lavery HA, Pinkerton JH. Successful treatment of Behcet’s syndrome with levamisole. Br J Dermatol 1985; 113: 372–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bang D. Treatment of Behcet’s disease. Yonsei Med J 1997; 38: 401–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Borrego LC, Escobar AS, Averhoff Casamayor MC, et al. Behcet’s syndrome: report of the first case in Cuba. Rev Cubana Estomatol 1989; 26: 175–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wechsler B, Le Thi Huong DU, Godeau P. Medical treatment of Behcet’s disease. J Mal Vasc 1988; 13: 262–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dhar S, Kanwar AJ, Ghosh S. Levamisole in erythema multiforme. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1993; 76: 678–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ogawa K, Sano T, Hisano G, et al. Levamisole in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Allergy 1979; 43: 187–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Smolen J, Scherak O, Menzel J, et al. Levamisole in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1977; 20: 1558–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Karchova TIu, Demin AA. The present-day treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Revmatologiia (Mosk) 1989; 4: 59–66Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Veys EM, Mielants H, Verbruggen G, et al. Levamisole as basic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: long-term evaluation. J Rheumatol 1981; 8: 45–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mowat AG. Levamisole and cellular immunity in rheumatoid arthritis: a review. J Rheumatol Suppl 1978; 4: 55–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Yunus MB. Investigational therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a critical review. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1988; 17: 163–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Balabanova RM, Barakat B. Immunomodulating therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. Revmatologiia (Mosk) 1990; 3: 38–44Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hernandez-Perez E. Levamisole plus indomethacin in the treatment of herpes simplex. Dermatologica 1980; 160 (2): 118–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Tanphaichitra D, Srimuang S. Efficacy of acyclovir combined with immunopotentiating agents in the treatment of varicella-zoster. J Antimicrob Chemother 1987; 19: 255–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Glick M, Muzyka BC. Alternative therapies for major aphthous ulcers in AIDS patients. J Am Dent Assoc 1992; 123: 61–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wiggington JM. Reversal of ferritin mediated immunosuppression by levamisole: a rationale for its application to the management of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Med Hypotheses 1995; 44: 85–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bourinbaiar AS, Lee-Huang S, Krasinski K, et al. Anti-HIV effect of immunomodulating agent, levamisole, in vitro. Biomed Pharmacother 1994; 48: 327–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    White CR, Hanifin JM. Levamisole therapy in atopic dermatitis: Randomized double-blind evaluation. Arch Dermatol 1978; 114: 1314–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sachar DB, Rubin KP, Gumaste V. Levamisole in Crohn’s disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Am J Gastroenterol 1987; 82: 536–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dickler MN, Coit DG, Meyers ML. Adjuvant therapy of malignant melanoma. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 1997; 6: 793–812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sondak VK, Wolfe JA. Adjuvant therapy for melanoma. Curr Opin Oncol 1997; 9: 189–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Spitler LE. A randomized trial of levamisole versus placebo as adjuvant therapy in malignant melanoma. J Clin Oncol 1991; 9: 736–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Loutfi A, Shakr A, Jerry M, et al. Double blind randomized prospective trial of levamisole/placebo in stage I cutaneous malignant melanoma. Clin Invest Med 1987; 10: 325–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Quirt IC, Shelley WE, Pater JL, et al. Improved survival in patients with poor-prognosis malignant melanoma treated with adjuvant levamisole: a phase III study by the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. J Clin Oncol 1991; 9: 729–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Barth A, Morton DL. The role of adjuvant therapy in melanoma management. Cancer 1995; 75 (2 Suppl.): 726–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wanebo HJ, Hilal EY, Pinsky CM, et al. Randomized trial of levamisole in patients with squamous cancer of the head and neck: a preliminary report. Cancer Treat Rep 1978; 62: 1663–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Olivari AJ, Glait HM, Guardo A, et al. Levamisole in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Treat Rep 1979; 63: 983–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hazen PG, Kallor A, Michel B. Effects of levamisole in Sezary syndrome: apparent acceleration of disease. Dermatologica 1979; 159: 461–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Arora SK, Singh G, Sen PC. Levamisole in cases of ENL. Indian J Lepr 1985; 57: 17–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Singh NK, Jha TK, Singh IJ, et al. Combination therapy in Kala-azar. J Assoc Physicians India 1995; 43: 319–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Veien NK. Cutaneous sarcoidosis: prognosis and treatment. Clin Dermatol 1986; 4: 75–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Veien NK. Cutaneous sarcoidosis treated with levamisole. Dermatologica 1977; 154: 185–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Cole PJ, Citron KM, Plowman PN, et al. The treatment of sarcoidosis by levamisole. Br J Dis Chest 1979; 73: 367–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Folkers E, Tafelkruyer J. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (Sneddon-Wilkinson disease): therapeutic problems. Br J Dermatol 1978; 98: 681–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noah Scheinfeld
    • 1
  • Joshua D. Rosenberg
    • 1
  • Jeffrey M. Weinberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of DermatologySt Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center and Beth Israel Medical CentersNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations