American Journal of Cancer

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 109–120 | Cite as

Neoplastic Skin Diseases in Organ Transplant Recipients

  • Sylvie Euvrard
  • Jean Kanitakis
  • Alain Claudy
Review Article


The number of organ transplant recipients (OTR) is growing steadily thanks to the improvements in organ preservation, transplantation surgery and immunosuppressive treatments. For the graft to function well it requires patients to be, in most cases, on lifelong immunosuppressive treatment. As a consequence, these patients have a high risk for developing various malignancies, namely those associated with viruses. Skin cancers, especially squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), account for the most frequent malignancies, affecting about 50% of patients within 20 years of transplantation. SCC tend to be multiple, may have a life-threatening course and seem to be a hallmark for developing other malignancies. Risk factors for skin carcinomas include ultraviolet light, immunosuppression, age, fair skin type, genetic factors and human papillomavirus infection. The frequency of skin carcinomas could be decreased by adequately educating patients regarding sun protection after transplantation. The incidence of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), associated with a recently discovered virus (KS-associated herpesvirus/Human Herpes Virus 8), lymphomas, melanomas, anogenital carcinoma and some other rare tumors (such as Merkel cell carcinomas and sarcomas) is also increased in patients receiving immunosuppression, and may have an aggressive course.


Squamous Cell Carcinoma Transplant Recipient Immunosuppressive Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Organ Transplant Recipient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Webb MC, Compton F, Andrews PA, et al. Skin tumours posttransplantation: a retrospective analysis of 28 years experience at a single centre. Transplant Proc 1997; 29: 828–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Behrend M, Kolditz M, Kliem V, et al. Malignancies in patients under long-term immunosuppression after kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc 1997; 29: 834–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hiesse C, Rieu P, Kriaa F, et al. Malignancy after renal transplantation: analysis of incidence and risk factors in 1700 patients followed during a 25-year period. Transplant Proc 1997; 29: 831–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mihalov ML, Gattuso P, Abraham K, et al. Incidence of post-transplant malignancy among 674 solid-organ-transplant recipients at a single center. Clin Transplant 1996; 10: 248–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Montagnino G, Lorca E, Rantino A, et al. Cancer incidence in 854 kidney transplant recipients from a single institution: comparison with normal population and with patients under dialytic treatment. Clin Transplant 1996; 10: 461–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Walder BK, Robertson MR, Jeremy D. Skin cancer and immunosuppression. Lancet 1971; II: 1282–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hartevelt MM, Bouwes Bavinck JN, Koote AMM, et al. Incidence of skin cancer after renal transplantation in the Netherlands. Transplantation 1990; 49: 506–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blohmé I, Larkö O. Skin lesions in renal transplant recipients after 10–23 years of immunosuppressive therapy. Acta Derm Venereol 1990; 70: 491–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Birkeland S, Storm HH, Lamm LU, et al. Cancer risk after renal transplantation in Nordic countries. Int J Cancer 1995; 60: 183–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jensen P, Hansen S, Moller B, et al. Skin cancer in kidney and heart transplant recipients and different long-term immunosuppressive therapy regimens. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999; 40: 177–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Penn I. Tumors after renal and cardiac transplantation. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1993; 7: 431–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Pouteil-Noble C, et al. Comparative epidemiologic study of premalignant and malignant epithelial cutaneous lesions developing after kidney and heart transplantation. J Am Acad Dermatol 1995; 33: 222–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fernandez-Gonzalez A, Espana A, Redondo P. Solid tumors after heart transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 62: 943–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ternesten-Bratel A, Kjellstrom C, Ricksten A. Specific expression of Epstein-Barr virus in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas from heart transplant recipients. Transplantation 1998; 66: 1524–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lampros TD, Cobanoglu A, Parker F, et al. Squamous and basal cell carcinoma in heart transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 1998; 17: 586–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hoagland P, Moore K, King J, et al. High incidence and clinical course of aggressive skin cancer in heart transplant patients: a single-center study. Transplant Proc 1998; 30: 1124–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adamson R, Obispo E, Dychter S, et al. High incidence and clinical course of aggressive skin cancer in heart transplant patients: a single-center study. Transplant Proc 1998; 30: 1124–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Veness MJ, Quinn DI, Ong CS, et al. Aggressive cutaneous malignancies following cardiothoracic transplantation. Cancer 1999; 85: 1759–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ong CS, Keogh AM, Kossard S, et al. Skin cancer in Australian heart transplant recipients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999; 40: 27–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Naldi L, Fortina AB, Lovati S, et al. Risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Italian organ transplant recipients: a registry-based study. Transplantation 2000; 70: 1479–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Caforio AL, Fortina AB, Piaserico S, et al. Skin cancer in heart transplant recipients: risk factor analysis and relevance of immunosuppressive therapy. Circulation 2000; 102: 222–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pollard JD, Hanasono M, Mikulec A, et al. Head and neck cancer in cardiothoracic transplant recipients. Laryngoscope 2000; 110: 1257–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Frezza EE, Fung JJ, VanThiel DH. Non-lymphoid cancer after liver transplantation. Hepatogastroenterology 1997; 44: 1172–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jonas S, Rayes N, Neumann U, et al. De Novo malignancies after liver transplantation using Tacrolimus-based protocols or Cyclosporine-based quadruple immunosuppression with an interleukin-2 receptor antibody or antithymocyte globulin. Cancer 1997; 80: 1141–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jain AB, Yee LD, Nalesnik MA, et al. Comparative incidence of de novo non-lymphoid malignancies after liver transplantation under tacrolimus using surveillance epidemiologic end result data. Transplantation 1998; 66: 1193–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bouwes-Bavinck JN, Hardie D, Green A, et al. The risk of skin cancer in renal transplant recipients in Queensland, Australia. Transplantation 1996; 61: 715–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bordea C, Cortina-Borja M, Wojnarowska F, et al. Distribution of upper limb skin cancers in relation to arteriovenous fistula side in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 2001; 71: 143–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Pouteil-Noble C, et al. Aggressive squamous cell carcinomas in organ transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 1995; 27: 1767–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Penn I. De novo malignancy in pediatrie organ transplant recipients. Pediatr Transplant 1998; 2: 56–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Cochat P, et al. Skin diseases in children with organ transplants. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001; 44: 932–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hoyo E, Kanitakis J, Euvrard S, et al. Proliferation characteristics of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas developing in organ graft recipients. Arch Dermatol Mar; 129 (3): 324–7Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kanitakis J, Narvaez D, Euvrard S, et al. Proliferation markers Ki67 and PCNA in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas: lack of prognostic value. Br J Dermatol 1997; 136: 643–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Narvaez D, Kanitakis J, Euvrard S, et al. Comparative nuclear morphometric analysis of aggressive and non-aggressive squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Acta Derm Venereol 1997; 77: 115–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Boyle J, Briggs JD, Mackie RM, et al. Cancer, warts, and sunshine in renal transplant patients. Lancet 1984; I: 702–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sheil AGR, Flavel S, Disney APS, et al. Cancer incidence in renal transplant patients treated with azathioprine or cyclosporine. Transplant Proc 1987; 19: 2214–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Glover MT, Deeks JJ, Raftery MJ, et al. Immunosuppression and risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in renal transplant recipients [letter]. Lancet 1997; 349: 398Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hoshida Y, Tsukuma H, Yasunaga Y, et al. Cancer risk after renal transplantation in Japan. Int J Cancer 1997; 71: 517–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bouwes-Bavinck JN, de Boers A, Vermeer BJ, et al. Sunlight, keratotic skin lesions and skin cancer in renal transplant recipients. Br J Dermatol 1993; 129: 242–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Butt A, Roberts DL. Renal transplant recipients and protection from sun: need for education. Lancet 1997; 349: 179–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Seukeran DC, Newstead CG, Cunliffe WJ. The compliance of renal transplant recipients with advice about sun protection measures. Br J Dermatol 1998; 138: 301–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cowen EW, Billingsley EM. Awareness of skin cancer by kidney transplant patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999; 40: 697–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kurimoto I, Streilein JW. UV-induced immunosuppression. In: Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Claudy A, editors. Skin diseases after organ transplantation. Paris: John Libbey Eurotext, 1998: 29–36Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Galvao MM, Sotto MN, Kihara SM, et al. Lymphocyte subsets and Langerhans cells in sun-protected and sun-exposed skin of immunosuppressed renal allograft recipients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998; 38: 38–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Servitje O, Seron D, Ferrer I, et al. Quantitative and morphometric analysis of Langerhans cells in non-exposed skin in renal transplant patients. J Cutan Pathol 1991; 18: 106–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ducloux D, Carron PL, Rebibou JM, et al. CD4 lymphopenia as a risk factor for skin cancers in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 1998; 65: 1270–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Arends MJ, Benton EC, McLaren KM, et al. Renal allograft recipients with high susceptibility to cutaneous malignancy have an increased prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA in skin tumours and a greater risk of anogenital malignancy. Br J Cancer 1997; 75: 722–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Euvrard S, Pouteil-Noble C, Kanitakis J, et al. Successive occurrence of T-cell and B-cell lymphomas after renal transplantation in a patient with multiple cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 1924–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Barroso-Vicens E, Ramirez G, Rabb H. Multiple primary malignancies in a renal transplant patient. Transplantation 1996; 61: 1655–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kanitakis J, Euvrard S, Montazeri A, et al. Atypical fibroxanthoma in a renal graft recipient. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 35: 262–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dantal J, Hourmant M, Cantarovich D, et al. Effect of long-term immunosuppression in kidney-graft recipients on cancer incidence: randomised comparison of two cyclosporin regimens. Lancet 1998; 351: 623–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ramos HC, Reyes J, Abu-Elmagd K, et al. Weaning of immunosuppression in long-term liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 1995; 59: 212–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Barr B, Benton EC, McLaren K, et al. Human papillomavirus infection and skin cancer in renal allograft recipients. Lancet 1989; I: 124–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Euvrard S, Chardonnet Y, Pouteil-Noble C, et al. Association of skin malignancies with various and multiple carcinogenic and non carcinogenic human papillo-maviruses in renal transplant recipients. Cancer 1993; 72: 2198–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chardonnet Y, Viac J, Euvrard S. Warts and squamous cell carcinomas in organ transplant patients: is the human papillomavirus responsible for carcinogenesis? Eur J Dermatol 1997; 7: 5–11Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    DeVilliers EM, Lavergne D, McLaren K, et al. Prevailing papillomavirus types in non-melanoma carcinomas of the skin in renal allograft recipients. Int J Cancer 1997; 73: 356–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Harwood CA, McGregor JM, Proby CM, et al. Human papillomavirus and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. J Clin Pathol 1999; 52: 249–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Harwood CA, Surentheran T, McGregor JM, et al. Human papillomavirus infection and non-melanoma skin cancer in immunosuppressed and immunocom-petent individuals. J Med Virol 2000; 61: 289–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Berkhout R, Bouwes-Bavinck J, ter Schegget J. Persistence of Human Papillomavirus DNA in benign and (pre)malignant skin lesions from renal transplant recipients. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 2087–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    de Jong-Tieben L, Berkhout R, ter Schegget J, et al. The prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA in benign keratotic skin lesions of renal transplant recipients with and without a history of skin cancer is equally high: a clinical study to assess risk factors for keratotic skin lesions and skin cancer. Transplantation 2000; 69: 44–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Boxman I, Berkhout R, Mulder L, et al. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in plucked hairs from renal transplant recipients and healthy volunteers. J Invest Dermatol 1997; 108: 712–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Boxman I, Mulder L, Russel A, et al. Human papillomavirus type 5 is commonly present in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals. Br J Dermatol 1999; 141: 246–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shamanin V, Zur Hausen H, Lavergne D, et al. Human papillomavirus infections in nonmelanoma skin cancers from renal transplant recipients and non-immunosuppressed patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88: 802–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    McGregor JM, Berkhout RJ, Rozycka M, et al. P53 mutations implicate sunlight in post-transplant skin cancer irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Qncogene 1997; 15: 1737–40Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cairey-Remonnay S, Humbey O, Mougin C, et al. TP53 polymorphism of exon 4 at codon 72 in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and benign epethelial lesions of renal transplant recipients and immunocompetent individuals: lack of correlation with HPV status. J Invest Dermatol 2002; In pressGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cathomas G, Tamm M, McGandy CE, et al. Absence of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated human herpes virus 8 in transplantation-related tumors other than Kaposi’s sarcoma. Transplant Proc 1997; 29: 836–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dupin N, Gorin I, Escande JP, et al. Lack of evidence of any association between human herpesvirus 8 and various skin tumors from both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients [letter]. Arch Dermatol 1997; 133: 537Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lebbé C, Tatoud R, Morel P, et al. Human Herpesvirus 8 sequences are not detected in epithelial tumors from patients receiving transplants [letter]. Arch Dermatol 1997; 133: 111Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Thomas DW, Ramsahoye B, Jasani B, et al. Epstein-Barr Virus in squamous cell carcinoma after renal transplantation. Transplantation 1995; 60: 390–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Huston BM, Maia DM. Absence of latent Epstein-Barr virus in cutaneous squamoproliferative lesions after solid organ transplantation. Mod Pathol 1997; 10: 1188–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kolhler S, Kamel OW, Chang PP, et al. Absence of herpesvirus 8 and Epstein-Barr virus genome sequences in cutaneous epithelial neoplasms arising in immunosuppressed organ-transplant patients. J Cutan Pathol 1997; 24: 559–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bouwes-Bavinck JN, Claas F, Hardie D, et al. Relation between HLA antigens and skin cancer in renal transplant recipients in Queensland, Australia. J Invest Dermatol 1997; 108: 708–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Marshall SE, Bordea C, Haldar N, et al. Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and skin cancer after renal transplantation. Kidney Int 2000; 58: 2186–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    VanZuuren E, Posma A, Scholtens R, et al. Resurfacing the back of the hand as treatment and prevention of multiple skin cancers in kidney transplant recipients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1994; 31: 760–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Euvrard S. General guidelines. In: Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Claudy, et al., editors. Skin diseases after organ transplantation. Paris: John Libbey Eurotext, 1998: 29–36Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Thivolet J, et al. Retinoids for the management of dermatological complications of organ transplantation. Biodrugs 1997; 3: 176–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Euvrard S, Verschoore M, Touraine JL, et al. Topical retinoids for warts and keratoses in transplant recipients. Lancet 1992; 340: 48–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rook AH, Jaworsky C, Nguyen T, et al. Beneficial effect of low-dose systemic retinoid in combination with topical tretinoin for the treatment and prophylaxis of premalignant and malignant skin lesions in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 1995; 59: 714–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Christiansen TN, Freije JE, Neuburg M, et al. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the parotid gland in a transplant patient. Clin Transplant 1996; 10: 561–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Magnone M, Holley J, Shapiro R, et al. Interferon a-induced acute renal allograft rejection. Transplantation 1994; 59: 1068–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Penn I. Cancers of the anogenital region in renal transplant recipients. Cancer 1986; 58: 611–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Chardonnet Y, et al. External anogenital lesions in organ transplant recipients. Arch Dermatol 1997; 133: 175–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Volgger B, Marth C, Zeimet A, et al. Fulminant course of a microinvasive vulvar carcinoma in an immunosuppressed woman. Gynecol Oncol 1997; 65: 177–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Longuet M, Cassonet P, Orth G. A novel genital human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV type 74, found in immunosuppressed patients. J Clin Microbiol 1996; 34: 1859–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lindelöf B, Sigurgeirsson B, Gäbel H, et al. Incidence of skin cancer in 5356 patients following organ transplantation. Br J Dermatol 2000; 143: 513–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Penn I. Malignant melanoma in organ allograft recipients. Transplantation 1996; 61: 274–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Greene MH. Malignant melanoma in renal transplant recipients. Lancet 1981; II: 1196–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lévêque L, Dalac S, Dompmartin A, et al. Melanoma in organ transplant patients [in French]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2000; 127: 160–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Grob JJ, Bastuji-Garin S, Vaillant L, et al. Excess of nevi related to immunodeficiency: a study in HIV-infected patients and renal transplant recipients. J Invest Dermatol 1996; 197: 694–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kanitakis J, Euvrard S, Faure M, et al. Caractéres prolifératifs des naevus chez les enfants greffés d’organe. Ann Dermatol Vénéréol 1999; 126: 687–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Smith C, McGregor J, Barker J, et al. Excess melanocytic nevi in children with renal allografts. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 28: 51–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Szepietowski J, Wasik F, Szepietowski T, et al. Excess benign melanocytic naevi in renal transplant recipients. Dermatology 1997; 194: 17–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Penn I, Brunson ME. Cancers after cyclosporine therapy. Transplant Proc 1988; 20: 885–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bismuth H, Samuel D, Venancie P, et al. Development of Kaposi’s sarcoma in liver transplant recipients: characteristics, management and outcome. Transplant Proc 1991; 23: 1438–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Farge D. Kaposi’s sarcoma in organ transplant recipients. Eur J Med 1993; 2: 339–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Besnard V, Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma after liver transplantation. Dermatology 1996; 193: 100–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kadry Z, Bronsther O, Van Thiel DH, et al. Kaposi’ s sarcoma in two primary liver allograft recipients occurring under FK506 immunosuppression. Clin Transplant 1993; 7: 188–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rezeig MA, Fashir MB, Hainau B, et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma in liver transplant recipients on FK 506: two case reports. Transplantation 1997; 63: 1520–1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Penn I. Sarcomas in organ allograft recipients. Transplantation 1995; 60: 1485–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Harwood AR, Osoba D, Hofstader SL, et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma in recipients of renal transplants. Am J Med 1979; 67: 759–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Francès C, Lagrange S. Kaposi’s sarcoma. In: Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Claudy A, et al., editors. Skin diseases after organ transplantation. Paris: John Libbey Eurotext, 1998: 131–8Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lesnoni La Parola I, Masini C, Nanni G, et al. Kaposi’ s sarcoma in renal-transplant recipients: experience at the catholic university of Rome, 1988–1996. Dermatology 1997; 194: 229–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Quinibi W, Barri Y, Al-Furayh O, et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma in renal transplant recipients: a report on 26 cases from a single institution. Transplant Proc 1993; 25: 1402–5Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Penn I. Kaposi’s sarcoma in transplant recipients. Transplantation 1997; 64: 669–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Halmos O, Inturri P, Galligioni A, et al. Two cases of Kaposi’s sarcoma in renal and liver transplant recipients treated with interferon. Clin Transplant 1996; 10: 374–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Colina F, Lopez-Rios F, Lumbreras C, et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma developing in a liver graft. Transplantation 1996; 61: 1779–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Al-Sulaiman MH, Mousa DH, Rassoul Z, et al. Transplant related Kaposi sarcoma in children. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1994; 9: 443–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ozen S, Saatci U, Karaduman A, et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma in a paediatric renal transplant recipient. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1996; 11: 1162–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Branson ME, Balakrishnan K, Penn I. HLA and Kaposi’s sarcoma in solid organ transplantation. Hum Immunol 1990; 29: 56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Burgert S, Strickman N, Carrol C, et al. Cardiac Kaposi’s sarcoma following heart transplantation. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2000; 49: 208–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kanitakis J, Narvaez D, Claudy A. Expression of the CD34 antigen distinguishes Kaposi’s sarcoma from pseudo-Kaposi’s sarcoma (acroangiodermatitis). Br J Dermatol 1996; 134: 44–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Weninger W, Partanen TA, Breiteneder-Geleff S, et al. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 and podoplanin suggests a lymphatic endothelial origin of Kaposi’s sarcoma tumor cells. Lab Invest 1999; 79: 243–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kaaya E, Parravicini C, Sundelin B, et al. Spindle cell ploidy and proliferation in endemic and epidemic African Kaposi’s sarcoma. Eur J Cancer 1992; 28: 1890–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Delabesse E, Oksenhendler E, Lebbé C, et al. Molecular analysis of clonality in Kaposi’s sarcoma. J Clin Pathol 1997; 50: 664–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Rabkin CS, Jane S, Lash A, et al. Monoclonal origin of multicentric Kaposi’s sarcoma lesions. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 988–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Moore PS, Chang Y. Detection of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in Kaposi’s sarcoma in patients with and those without HIV infection. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 1181–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Russo JJ, Bohenzky RA, Chien MC, et al. Nucleotide sequence of the Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (HHV8). Proc Natl Acad sci USA 1996; 93: 14862–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Cathomas G. Human herpes virus 8: anew virus discloses its face. Virchows Arch 2000; 436: 195–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Boshoff C. Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus. Cancer Surv 1998; 33: 157–90Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Alkan S, Karcher DS, Ortiz A, et al. Human herpesvirus-8/Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in organ transplant patients with immunosuppression. Br JHaematol 1997; 96: 412–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Flore O, Rafii S, Ely S, et al. Transformation of primary human endothelial cells by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Nature 1998; 394: 588–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Muralidhar S, Pumfrey A, Hassani M, et al. Identification of kaposin (open reading frame K12) as a human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) transforming gene. J Virol 1998; 72: 4980–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lebbé C, Agbalika F, de Crémoux P, et al. Detection of human herpesvirus 8 and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 sequences in Kaposi sarcoma. Arch Dermatol 1997; 133: 25–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kedda MA, Margolius L, Kew MC, et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpes virus in Kaposi’s sarcoma occurring in immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients. Clin Transplant 1996; 10: 429–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Noel JC, De Thier F, Heenen M, et al. HHV-8 is associated with recurrent Kaposi’s sarcoma in a renal transplant recipient. Transplant Int 1997; 10: 81–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Whitby D, Howard MR, Tenant-Flowers M, et al. Detection of Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus in peripheral blood of HIV-infected individuals and progression to Kaposi’s sarcoma. Lancet 1995; 346: 799–802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Pozo F, Tenorio A, Dela Mata M, et al. Persistent Human herpesvirus 8 viremia before Kaposi’s sarcoma development in a liver transplant recipient. Transplantation 2000; 70: 395–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Parravicini C, Olsen SJ, Capra M, et al. Risk of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus transmission from donor allografts among Italian posttransplant Kaposi’s sarcoma patients. Blood 1997; 90: 2826–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Gao SJ, Kingsley L, Li M, et al. KSHV antibodies among Americans, Italians and Ugandans with or without Kaposi’s sarcoma. Nat Med 1996; 2: 925–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Francès C, Mouquet C, Marcellin AG, et al. Outcome of kidney transplant recipients with previous human herpeviras-8 infection. Transplantation 2000; 69: 1776–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Cattani P, Nanni G, Capuano M, et al. Pretransplantation human herpes viras 8 seropositivity as a risk factor for Kaposi’s sarcoma in kidney transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 2000; 32: 526–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Regamey N, Tamm M, Wernli M, et al. Transmission of Human herpesvirus 8 infection from renal-transplant donors to recipients. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 1358–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Bottalico D, Santabosti Barbone G, Giancaspro V, et al. Post-transplantation Kaposi’s sarcoma appearing simultaneously in same cadaver donor renal transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997; 12: 1055–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Husscin M, Mooij J, Roujouleh H. Regression of posttransplant Kaposi sarcoma after discontinuing cyclosporin and giving mycophenolate mofetil instead. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000; 15: 1103–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Shepherd FA, Maher E, Cardella C, et al. Treatment of Kaposi’s sarcoma after solid organ transplantation. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15: 2371–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Medveczky MM, Horvath E, Lund T, et al. In vitro antiviral drag sensitivity of the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus. AIDS 1997; 11: 1327–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Al-Sulaiman MH, Mousa DH, Dhar JM, et al. Does regressed posttransplantation Kaposi’s sarcoma recur following reintroduction of immunosuppression? Am J Nephrol 1992; 12: 384–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Doutrelepont JM, De Pauw L, Gruber SA, et al. Renal transplantation exposes patients with previous Kaposi’s sarcoma to a high risk of recurrence. Transplantation 1996; 62: 463–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Bosshard S, et al. No recurrence of posttransplantation Kaposi’s sarcoma three years after renal retransplantation. Transplantation 2002; 73: 297–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    vanGorp J, Doornewaard H, Verdonck L, et al. Posttransplant T-cell lymphoma: report of three cases and review of the literature. Cancer 1994; 73: 3064–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ahmed I. Cutaneous B cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder [abstract]. Am J Dermatopathol 2000; 22: 352Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Chai C, White W, Shea C, et al. Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders primarily involving the skin. J Cutan Pathol 1999; 26: 242–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Gonthier D, Hartman G, Holley J. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder presenting as an isolated skin lesion. Am J Kidney Dis 1992; 19: 600–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kerr P, Gohn R, Robinson-Bostom L. Cutaneous Epstein-Barr virus-induced posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder [abstract]. J Cutan Pathol 2000; 27: 543AGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    McGregor J, Yu C, Lu Q, et al. Posttransplant cutaneous lymphoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 29: 549–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Mozzanica N, Cattaneo A, Fracchiolla N, et al. Posttransplantation cutaneous B cell lymphoma with monoclonal Epstein-Barr viras infection, responding to acyclovir and reduction in immunosuppression. J Heart Lung Transplant 1997; 16: 964–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Schumann K, Oriba H, Bergfeld W, et al. Cutaneous presentation of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 42: 923–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Whittam L, Coleman R, McDonald D. Plasma cell tumour in a renal transplant recipient. Clin Exp Dermatol 1996; 21: 367–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Tas S, Simonart T, Dargent J, et al. Granulomatose lymphomatoïde à localisation cutanée isolée aprés une transplantation cardio-pulmonaire. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2000; 127: 488–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Pascual J, Torrelo A, Teruel J, et al. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas after renal transplantation. Transplantation 1992; 53: 1143–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Ward H, Russo G, McBurney E, et al. Posttransplant primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001; 44: 675–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Defossez C, Carmi E, Poulain JE, et al. Lymphome T cutané chez une transplantée rénale [abstract]. Nouv Dermatol 2001; 20 Suppl. 3: 25Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Milpied V, Vasseur B, Parquet N, et al. Humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (Rituximab) in post transplant B-lymphoproliferative disorder: a retrospective analysis on 32 patients. Ann Oncol 2000; 11 Suppl. 1: 113–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Heinzerling L, Urbanek M, Funk J, et al. Reduction of tumor burden and stablization of disease by systemic therapy with anti-CD20 antibody (Rituximab) in patients with primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Cancer 2000; 89: 1835–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Penn I. Posttransplantation de novo tumors in liver allograft recipients. Liver Transpl Surg 1996; 2: 52–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Somers G, Tesoriero A, Hartland E, et al. Multiple leiomyosarcomas of both donor and recipient origin in a heart-lung transplant patient. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22: 1423–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Lee E, Locker J, Malesnik M, et al. The association of Epstein-Barr virus with smooth-muscle tumors occurring after organ transplantation. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 19–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Kingma D, Shad A, Tsokos M, et al. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated smooth muscle tumor arising in a post-transplant patient treated successfully for two PT-EBV associated large cell lymphomas. Am J Surg Pathol 1996; 20: 1511–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    VanGelder T, Vuzevski V, Weimar W. Epstein-Barr virus in smooth muscle tumors [letter]. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 1719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Uribe-Uribe N, Aviles-Salas A, Orozco-Estevez H, et al. Leiomyosarcoma associated with Epstein-Barr virus in an adult with renal transplant [in Spanish]. Rev Invest Clin 1998; 50: 255–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Dei Tos A, Maestro R, Doglioni C, et al. Ultraviolet-induced p53 mutations in atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Pathol 1994; 145: 11–7Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Paquet P, Pierard G. Invasive atypical fibroxanthoma and eruptive actinic keratoses in a heart transplant recipient. Dermatology 1996; 192: 411–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Hafner J, Künzi W, Weinreich T. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma and atypical fibroxanthoma in renal transplant recipients. Dermatology 1999; 198: 29–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Bessis D, Sotto A, Roubert P, et al. Endothelin-secreting angiosarcoma occurring at the site of an arteriovenous fistula for haemodialysis in a renal transplant recipient. Br J Dermatol 1998; 138: 361–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Wehrli B, Janzen D, Shokeir O, et al. Epithelioid angiosarcoma arising in surgically constructed arteriovenous fistula. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22: 1154–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Medioni L, Costes V, Leray H, et al. Angiosarcome sur fistule artérioveineuse chez un transplanté rénal. Ann Pathol 1996; 16: 200–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Conlon P, Daly T, Doyle G, et al. Angiosarcoma at the site of a ligated arteriovenousfistula in a renal transplant recipient. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1993; 8: 259–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Parrott N, Scott P, Freemont A, et al. Angiosarcoma in an arteriovenous fistula following successful renal transplantation-a case report. Transplantation 1993; 55: 676–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Kibe Y, Kishimoto S, Katoh N, et al. Angiosarcoma of the scalp associated with renal transplantation. Br J Dermatol 1997; 136: 752–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Alpers C, Biava C, Salvatierra O. Angiosarcoma following renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 1982; 14: 448–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Studniberg H, Rivers J, Cooke B, et al. The coexistence of lymphangiosarcoma and Kaposi’s sarcoma in a renal transplant recipient. Cancer 1991; 68: 2330–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Penn I, First M. Merkel’s cell carcinoma in organ recipients. Transplantation 1999; 68: 1717–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Formica M, Basolo B, Funaro L, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma in renal transplant recipient. Nephron 1994; 68: 399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Gilaberte M, Pujol R, Sierra J, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma developing after bone marrow transplantation. Dermatology 2000; 201: 80–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Gooptu C, Woolons A, Ross J, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma arising after therapeutic immunosuppression. Br J Dermatol 1997; 137: 637–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Pham S, Kormos R, Landreneau R, et al. Solid tumors after heart transplantation: lethality of lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg 1995; 60: 1623–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Plunket T, Harris A, Ogg C, et al. The treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma and its association with immunosuppression. Br J Dermatol 1998; 139: 345–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Stempfle H, Mudra H, Angermann C, et al. Rapid growth of cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma during treatment of refractory cardiac allograft rejection with OKT3 monoclonal antibody. J Heart Lung Transplant 1993; 12: 501–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Urbatsch A, Sams M, Urist M, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma occurring in renal transplant recipients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999; 41: 289–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Williams R, Morgan M, Mathieson I, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma in a renal transplant patient: increased incidence? Transplantation 1998; 27: 1396–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Douds A, Mellotte G, Morgan H. Fatal Merkel-cell tumour (cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma) complicating renal transplantation. Nephrol Dial Transpl 1995; 10: 2346–8Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Baron J, Sanchez C, Garcia P. Merkel cell carcinoma in a kidney transplant patient. Rev Clin Esp 2001; 201: 223Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Lok C, Luong S, Chaby G, et al. Cutaneous echography at a renal grafted patient presenting multiple histiocytofibromes localised [abstract; in French]. Nouv Dermatol 1998; 17: 627Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Boivin S, Catteau B, Provot F, et al. Histiocytofibromes atypiques chez deux patients greffés rénaux [abstract]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2000; 127 Suppl. 4: 219Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Lai K, Lai F, King W, et al. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in a renal transplant patient. Aust N Z Surg 1995; 65: 900–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Hadzic N, Pritchard J, Webb D, et al. Recurrence of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the graft after pediatrie liver transplantation. Transplantation 2000; 70: 815–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Miller M, Tonsgard J, Soltani K. Late-onset neurofibromatosis in a liver transplant recipient. Int J Dermatol 2000; 39: 376–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Lemeur Y, Bédane C, Clavère P, et al. A proliferative vascular tumour of the skin in a kidney-transplant recipient (recurrent pyogenic granuloma with satellitosis). Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997; 12: 1271–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Otley CC. Organization of a speciality clinic to optimize the care of organ transplant recipients at risk for skin cancer. Dermatol Surg 2000; 26: 709–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinique DermatologiqueHôspital Edouard HerriotLyon Cedex 03France

Personalised recommendations