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CNS Drugs

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 27–47 | Cite as

Antiepileptic Drugs in Non-Epilepsy Disorders

Relations between Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Efficacy
Review Article

Abstract

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used extensively to treat multiple non-epilepsy disorders, both in neurology and psychiatry. This article provides a review of the clinical efficacy of AEDs in non-epilepsy disorders based on recently published preclinical and clinical studies, and attempts to relate this efficacy to the mechanism of action of AEDs and pathophysiological processes associated with the disorders. Some newer indications for AEDs have been established, while others are under investigation. The disorders where AEDs have been demonstrated to be of clinical importance include neurological disorders, such as essential tremor, neuropathic pain and migraine, and psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Many of the AEDs have various targets of action in the synapse and have several proposed relevant mechanisms of action in epilepsy and in other disorders. Pathophysiological processes disturb neuronal excitability by modulating ion channels, receptors and intracellular signalling pathways, and these are targets for the pharmacological action of various AEDs. Attention is focused on the glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses.

In psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, AEDs such as valproate, carbamazepine and lamotrigine appear to have clear roles based on their effect on intracellular pathways. On the other hand, some AEDs, e.g. topiramate, have efficacy for nonpsychiatric disorders including migraine, possibly by enhancing GABAergic and reducing glutamatergic neurotransmission.

AEDs that seem to enhance GABAergic neurotransmission, e.g. tiagabine, valproate, gabapentin and possibly levetiracetam, may have a role in treating neurological disorders such as essential tremor, or anxiety disorders. AEDs with effects on voltage-gated sodium or calcium channels may be advantageous in treating neuropathic pain, e.g. gabapentin, pregabalin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine and valproate.

Co-morbid conditions associated with epilepsy, such as mood disorders and migraine, may often respond to treatment with AEDs. Other possible disorders where AEDs may be of clinical importance include cancer, HIV infection, drug and alcohol abuse, and also in neuroprotection.

A future challenge is to evaluate the second-generation AEDs in non-epilepsy disorders and to design clinical trials to study their effects in such disorders in paediatric patients. Differentiation between the main mechanisms of action of the AEDs needs more consideration in drug selection for tailored treatment of the various non-epilepsy disorders.

Keywords

Migraine Bipolar Disorder Neuropathic Pain Valproate Gabapentin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to Dr Svein I. Johannessen for his helpful advice and discussions during the preparation of this manuscript. No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The author has no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

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Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health SciencesOslo University CollegeOsloNorway

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