, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 271–273 | Cite as

The NICE Reference Case Requirement

More Pain for What, if Any, Gain?
  • Amiram Gafni
  • Stephen Birch


Resource Allocation Reference Case Additional Burden Appraisal Committee Healthcare Decision Maker 


  1. 1.
    Langley PC. The NICE reference case requirement: implications for manufacturers and health care systems. Pharmacoeconomics 2004; 22 (4): 267–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gold MR, Siegel JE, Russell LB, et al. Cost-effectiveness in health and medicine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    National Institute of Clinical Excellence. Guide to the methods of technology appraisal [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2004 Jan 13]
  4. 4.
    Birch S, Gafni A. Cost-effectiveness/utility analysis: do current decision rules lead us to where we want to be? J Health Econ 1992; 11: 279–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Birch S, Gafni A. Changing the problem to fit the solution: Johannesson and Weinstein’s (mis)application of economics to real world problems. J Health Econ 1993; 12: 469–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sendi P, Gafni A, Birch S. Opportunity costs and uncertainty in the economic evaluation of health care interventions. Health Econ 2002; 11: 23–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gafni A, Birch S. NICE methodological guidelines and decision making in the National Health Service in England and Wales. Pharmacoeconomics 2003; 21 (3): 149–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Doubilet P, Weinstein M, McNeil B. Use and misuse of the term “cost-effective” in medicine. New Engl J Med 1986; 314: 253–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Birch S, Gafni A. On being NICE in the UK: guidelines for technology appraisal for the NHS in England and Wales. Health Econ 2002; 11: 85–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cookson R, McDaid D, Maynard A. Wrong SIGN, NICE mess: Is national guidance distorting allocation of resources? BMJ 2000; 323: 743–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amiram Gafni
    • 1
  • Stephen Birch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations