PharmacoEconomics

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 321–326 | Cite as

Methadone Programmes

The Costs and Benefits to Society and the Individual
  • George E. Ralston
  • Philip Wilson
Leading Article

Keywords

Drug User Heroin Methadone Maintenance Treatment Methadone Maintenance Opioid Dependence 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cherubin CE. The medical sequelae of narcotic addiction. Ann Intern Med 1967: 67: 23–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Prayurahong B, Pongpaew P, Migasenan P, et al. B vitamin status: effect of prolonged heroin addiction and methadonetreatment. J Med Asoc Thai 1991: 74: 131–4Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gambara SE, Clark JK. Comments on dietary intake of drug dependent person. J Am Diet Assoc 1976: 68: 155–7Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aylett A. Some aspects of nutritional state in ‘hard’ drug addicts. Brit J Addict 1978: 73: 77–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Heathcote J, Taylor KB. Immunity and nutrition in heroin addicts. Drug Alcohol Depend 1981: 8: 245–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nakah A, Frank O, Louria BB, et al. Vitamin profile of heroin addiction. Am J Public Health 1979: 69: 1058–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zolopa AR, Hahn J A. HIV and tuberculosis infection in San Francisco’s homeless adults: prevalence and risk factors in arepresentative sample. JAMA 1994: 272: 455–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hughes S, Caverley PMA. Heroin inhalation and asthma. BMJ 1988; 297: 1511–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lam SK, To WK, Duthie SJ, et al. Narcotic addiction in pregnancy with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 1992; 32: 216–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hussey HH, Katz S. Infections resulting from narcotic addiction. Am J Med 1950; 9: 186–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hussey HH, Keliher TF, Schaefer BF, et al. Septicaemia and bacterial endocarditis resulting from heroin addiction. JAMA 1944; 126: 535–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mientjes GHC, Miedema F, van Ameijden EJ, et al. Frequent injecting impairs lymphocyte reactivity in HIV—positive and HIV—negative drug users. AIDS 1991; 5: 35–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Welch GH, Reid DB, Pollock JG. Infected false aneurysms in the groin of intravenous drug abusers. Br J Surg 1990; 77: 330–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Van den Hoek JAR, van Haastrecht HJA, Goudsmit J, et al. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection among drug users in Amsterdam. J Infect Dis 1990; 162: 823–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Woodfield DG, Hamess M, Rix-Trott K. Hepatitis C virus infection in oral and injectable drug users. N Z Med J 1993; 106: 332–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Crofts N, Hopper JL, Bowden DS, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection among cohort of Victorian injecting drug users. Med J Aust 1993; 159: 237–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fingerhood MI, Jasinski DR, Sullivan JT. Prevalence of hepatitis B in a chemically dependent population. Arch Intern Med 1993; 159: 237–41Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baumgarten R. Correlation between disease and community: is drug addiction a problem of fringe groups? Forensic Sci Int 1993; 62: 67–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Corty E, Ball JC, Myers CP. Psychological symptoms in methadone maintenance patients: prevalence in change overtreatment. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988; 56: 776–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Darke S, Wodak A, Hall W, et al. Prevalence and predictors of psychopathology among opioid users. Br J Addict 1992; 87: 771–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Steer RA, Iguchi MY, Platt JJ. Use of the revised Beck Depression Inventory with intravenous drug users not in treatment. Psychol Addict Behav 1992; 6: 225–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Swift W, Williams G, Neill O, et al. The prevalence of minor psychopathology in opioid users seeking treatment. Br J Addict 1990; 85: 629–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brooner RK, Greenfield L, Schmidt CW, et al. Antisocial personality disorder and HIV infection in drug abusers. Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150: 53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Darke S, Hall W, Ross M, Wodak A. Benzodiazepine use and HIV risk—taking behaviour among injecting drug users. Drug Alcohol Depend 1992; 31: 31–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Inchiardi JA. Heroin use and street crime. Crime Delinq 1979; 25: 335–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hammersley R, Forsyth A, Lavelle T. A criminality of new drug users in Glasgow. Br J Addict 1990; 85: 1583–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Spunt BJ. The link between identity and crime for the heroin addict in methadone treatment. Int J Addict 1993; 28: 813–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dobinson I, Ward P. Drugs and crime. Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research. Sydney Attorney General’s Department. 1985Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bell J, Hall W, Byth K. Changes in criminal activity after entering methadone maintenance. Br J Addict 1992; 87: 251–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Taylor PL, Albright Jr WJ. Non—drug criminal behaviour and heroin use. Int J Addict 1981; 16: 683–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maddux JF, Desmond DP. Heroin addicts and their nonaddicted brothers. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1984; 10: 237–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Casado-Flores J, Bano-Rodrig A, Romero E. Social and medical problems in children of heroin addicted parents: a study of 75 patients. Am J Dis Child 1990; 144: 977–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Heather N. Disulfiram treatment for alcohol problems: is it effective and. if so why? In: Brewer C. editor. Treatment optionsin addiction. London: Gaskell. 1993; 1–18Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Marlatt GA, Gordon JR. Relapse prevention. New York: Guildford Press. 1985Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ball JC, Ross A. The effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment. New York: Springer Verlag. 1991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wilson P, Watson R, Ralston GE. Methadone maintenance in general practice: patients, workload and outcomes. BMJ 1994; 309: 641–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Capelhom JR, Bell J, Kleinbaum DJ, et al. Methadone and heroin use during methadone maintenance treatment. Addiction 1993; 88: 119–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ward J, Mattick RP, Hall W. Key issues in methadone maintenance treatment. Sydney: New South Wales University Press.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dole VP, Joseph HJ. Methadone maintenance: outcome after termination. N Y State J Med 1977; 77: 1409–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bellius DJ. Reductiun of AIDS risk among 41 heroin addicted female street prostitutes: effects of free methadone maintenance. J Addict Dis 1993; 12: 7–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Reno RR, Aitken LS. Life activities and life quality of heroin addicts in and out of methadone treatment. Int J Addict 1993; 28: 211–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Binchey JM, Molyneaux EM, Manning J. Accidental ingestion of methadone by children in Merseyside. BMJ 1994; 304: 1335–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Maddux JF, Desmond DP. Methadone maintenance and recovery from opioid dependence. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1992; 18: 63–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Plotnick RD. Applying benefit cost analysis to substance use prevention programmes. Int J Addict 1994; 29: 339–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tolley K, Rowland N. Evaluating the cost—effectiveness of counselling in health care. London: Routledge. 1994Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yates BT. Cost—effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis: an introduction. Behav Assess 1985; 7: 207–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yates BT. Toward the incorporation of costs, cost—effectiveness analysis, and cost—benefit analysis into clinical research. J Consult Clin Psychol 1994; 4: 729–36Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • George E. Ralston
    • 1
  • Philip Wilson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Psychology, Community and Mental Health Unit TrustStobhill HospitalBalornockScotland
  2. 2.Glasgow University Department of General PracticeWoodside Health CentreScotland

Personalised recommendations