, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 275–279 | Cite as

Tacrine for Alzheimer’s Disease

Costs and Benefits
  • David Knopman
Guest Editorial


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Canadian Study of Health and Aging Working Group. Canadian study of health and aging: study methods and prevalence of dementia. Can Med Assoc J 1994; 150: 899–912Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kokmen E, Beard CM, Offord KP, et al. Prevalence of medically diagnosed dementia in a defined United States population: Rochester, Minnesota, January 1, 1975. Neurology 1989; 39: 773–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bachman DL, Wolf PA, Linn R, et al. Prevalence of dementia and senile dementia of the Alzheimer type in the Framingham study. Neurology 1992; 42: 115–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Evans DA, Funkenstein HH, Albert MS, et al. Prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in a community population of older persons: higher than previously reported. JAMA 1989; 262: 2551–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blass JP. Pathophysiology of the Alzheimer’s syndrome. Neurology 1993; 43 Suppl. 4: S25–38Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    DeKosky ST, Scheff SW. Synapse loss in frontal cortex biopsies in Alzheimer’s disease: correlation with cognitive severity. Ann Neurol 1990; 27: 457–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Terry RD, Masliah E, Salmon DP, et al. Physical basis of cognitive alterations in Alzheimer’s disease: synapse loss is the major correlate of cognitive impairment. Ann Neurol 1991; 30: 572–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Selkoe DJ. Physiological production of the beta-amyloid protein and the mechanism of Alzheimer’s disease. Trends Neurosci 1993; 16: 403–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Strittmatter WJ, Weisgraber KH, Goedert M, et al. Hypothesis: microtubule instability and paired helical filament formation in the Alzheimer disease brain are related to apolipoprotein E genotype. Exper Neurol 1994; 125: 163–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arriagada PV, Growdon JH, Hedley-White T, et al. Neurofibrillary tangles but not senile plaques parallel duration and severity of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1992; 42: 631–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    McGeer PL, Rogers J. Anti-inflammatory agents as a therapeutic approach to Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1992; 42: 447–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rogers J, Kirby LC, Hempelman SR, et al. Clinical trial of indomethacin in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1993; 43: 1609–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Davies P, Maloney AJF. Selective loss of central cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 1976; 2: 1403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Perry EK, Tomlinson BE, Blessed G, et al. Correlation of cholinergic abnormalities with senile plaques and mental test scores in senile dementia. BMJ 1978; 2: 1457–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    DeKosky ST, Harbaugh RE, Schmitt FA, et al. Cortical biopsy in Alzheimer disease: diagnostic accuracy and neurochemical, neuropathological and cognitive correlations. Ann Neurol 1992; 32: 625–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Becker RE, Giacobini E. Mechanisms of cholinesterase inhibition in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type: clinical, pharmacological and therapeutic aspects. Drug Dev Res 1988; 12: 163–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thai LJ, Masur DM, Blau AD, et al. Chronic oral physostigmine without lecithin improves memory in Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 1989; 37: 42–8Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mohs RC, Davis BM, Johns CA, et al. Oral physostigmine treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Psychiatry 1985; 142: 28–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stern Y, Sano M, Mayeux R. Effects of oral physostigmine in Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol 1987; 22: 306–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Summers WK, Majovski LV, Marsh GM, et al. Oral tetrahydroaminoacridine in long-term treatment of senile dementia, Alzheimer-type. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 1241–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Division of Neuropharmacological Drug Products, Office of New Drug Evaluation (I), Center for Drug Evaluation and Review. Tacrine as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease: an interim report from the FDA. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 349–52Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Eagger SA, Levy R, Sahakian B. Tacrine in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 1991; 337: 989–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gauthier S, Bouchard R, Lamontagne A, et al. Tetrahydro­aminoacridine-lecithin combination treatment in patients with intermediate-stage Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med 1990; 322: 1272–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chatellier G, Lacomblez L, on behalf of Groupe Français d’ Etude de la Tetrahydroaminoacridine. Tacrine and lecithin in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type: a multicentre trial. BMJ 1990; 300: 495–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Davis K, ThaI LJ, Gamzu ER, et al. A double-blind, placebo­controlled multicenter study of tacrine for Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 1253–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maltby N, Broe GA, Creasey H, et al. Efficacy of tacrine and lecithin in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: double blind trial. BMJ 1994; 308: 879–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wilcock GK, Surmon DJ, Scott M, et al. An evaluation of the efficacy and safety of tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) without lecithin in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Age Ageing 1993; 22: 316–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Farlow M, Gracon SI, Hershey LA, et al. A controlled trial of tacrine in Alzheimer’s disease. JAMA 1992; 268: 2523–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Knapp MJ, Knopman DS, Solomon PR, et al. A 30-week, randomized, controlled trial of high-dose tacrine. in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. JAMA 1994; 271: 985–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Guralnik JM, LaCroix AZ, Everett DF, et al. Aging in the eighties: the prevalence of comorbidity and its association with disability. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 1989. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 170Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Seeman TE, Guralnik JM, Kaplan GA, et al. The health consequences of multiple morbidity in the elderly: the Alameda County study. J Aging Health 1989; 1: 50–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Evans DA, Scherr PA, Cook NR, et al. The impact of Alzheimer’s disease in the United States population. In: Suzman RM, Willis DP, Manton KG, editors. The oldest old. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992: 283–99Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Beard CM, Kokmen E, Offord KP, et al. Lack of association between Alzheimer’s disease and education, occupation, marital status, or living arrangement. Neurology 1992; 42: 2063–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lubeck DP, Mazonson PD, Bowe T. Potential effect of tacrine on expenditures for Alzheimer’s disease. Med Interface 1994; 7 (10): 130–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Welch HG, Walsh JS, Larson EB. The cost of institutional care in Alzheimer’s disease: nursing home and hospital use in a prospective cohort. J Am Geriatr Soc 1992; 40: 221–4PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Knopman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of Minnesota HospitalsMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations