Sports Medicine

, Volume 32, Issue 14, pp 879–885 | Cite as

Core Temperature Measurement

Methods and Current Insights
Current Opinion

Abstract

Climatic injuries, including hypothermia, hyperthermia and heat stroke, are common in many sports activities. Body core temperature (Tc) measurement for the sportsperson can influence individual performance and may help to prevent injuries. Monitoring internal body Tc accurately requires invasive methods of measurement. The mercury thermometer, most commonly used to measure oral temperature (Toral), has been almost exclusively the only instrument for measuring Tc since the 18th century. Rectal (Tre) and oesophageal temperatures (Toes) have been the most preferred measurement sites employed in thermoregulatory investigations. However, these measurement sites (Tre, Toes, Toral), and the methods used to measure Tc at these sites, are not convenient. Toral measurements are not always possible or accurate. Toes is undesirable because of the difficulty of inserting the thermistor, irritation to nasal passages and general subject discomfort. Tre is not suitable under many circumstances as it is labour intensive and has a prolonged response time. However, Tre remains the most accurately available method for monitoring Tc in thermal illness that occurs during sports activities. In addition, Tre and Toes require wire connections between the thermistor and the monitoring device. The purpose of this paper is to review the various existing methods of Tc measurements in order to focus on the breakthrough needed for a simple, noninvasive, universally used device for Tc measurement which is essential for preventing climatic injuries during sports events.

Keywords

Tympanic Membrane Smite Mercury Thermometer Oesophageal Temperature Measure Body Temperature 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors have provided no information on sources of funding or on conflicts of interest directly relevant to the content of this review.

References

  1. 1.
    Hensel H. Thermal comfort in man, thermoreception and temperature regulation. New York: Academic Press, 1981Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ring EFJ. Progress in the measurement of human body temperature. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag 1998; 17: 19–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Deuteronomy 28.22. The Holy Scriptures of the Old Testament, Hebrew and English. London: British and Foreign Bible Society, 1996: 325Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wunderlich C. On the temperature in disease: a manual of medical thermometry. Translated by W Bathurst Woodman. London: New Sydenham Society, 1871Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cetas TC. Thermometers. In: Mackowiak PA, editor. Fever: basic mechanisms and management. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997: 11–34Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cattaneo CG, Frank SM, Hesel TW, et al. The accuracy and precision of body temperature monitoring methods during regional and general anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2000; 90: 938–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Amoateng-Adjepong Y, Del Mundo J, Manthous CA. Accuracy of an infrared tympanic thermometer. Chest 1999; 115: 1002–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Briner Jr WW. Tympanic membrane vs rectal temperature measurement in marathon runners [letter]. J Am Med Assoc 1996; 276: 194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hooker EA, Houston H. Screening for fever in adult emergency department: oral vs tympanic thermometry. South Med J 1996; 89: 230–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sawka MN, Wenger CB. Physiologic responses to acute exercise heat stress. In: Pandolf KB, Sawka MN, Gonzalez RR, editors. Human performance physiology and environmental medicine at terrestrial extremes. Indianapolis (IN): Benchmark Press, 1998: 97–151Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stuart MC, Lee SMC, Williams WJ, et al. Core temperature measurement during supine exercise: esophageal, rectal and intestinal temperature. Aviat Space Environ Med 2000; 71: 939–45 12. Brengelmann GL. Dilemma of body temperature measurement. In: Shiraki K, Yousef MK, editors. Man in stressful environments: thermal and work physiology. Springfield (IL): Charles C. Thomas, 1987: 5–22Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brengelmann GL. Dilemma of body temperature measurement. In: Shiraki K, Yousef MK, editors. Man in stressful environments: thermal and work physiology. Springfield (IL): Charles C. Thomas, 1987: 5–22 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Military Physiology Unit, Heller Institute of Medical ResearchSheba Medical CenterTel HashomerIsrael

Personalised recommendations