Sports Medicine

, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 341–349 | Cite as

Effects of Exercise on Chromium Levels

Is Supplementation Required?
Leading Article

Summary

It is estimated that most individuals are not ingesting sufficient amounts of chromium in their diets. Although there is little information on chromium intake in athletes, many athletes ingest more calories than do non-athletes so their chromium intake should be adequate. However, athletes who restrict calories to maintain low bodyweights could compromise their chromium status. Some evidence also shows that exercise may increase chromium loss into the urine. At present, it is not known whether this loss necessitates additional chromium in the diet or whether the body will increase retention in response to the loss. Chromium deficiency is thought to contribute to glucose intolerance and unhealthy blood lipid profiles. The primary function of chromium is to potentiate the effects of insulin, and thereby alter glucose, amino acid and fat metabolism. Chromium supplements have been purported to increase muscle mass and decrease body fat. However, the preponderance of evidence has not supported this claim. There is little information available on the long term use of chromium supplements, but at present, supplements within the Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Allowance (ESADDI) level do not appear harmful. The prudent course of action for athletes would be to ingest foods rich in chromium and perhaps take a multivitamin/mineral supplement containing no more than the ESADDI of chromium.

Keywords

Chromium Adis International Limited Chromium Picolinate Chromium Chloride Chromium Supplement 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Schwarz K, Mertz W. A glucose tolerance factor and its differentiation for factor 3. Arch Biochem Biophys 1957; 72: 515–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schwarz K, Mertz W. Chromium (III) and the glucose tolerance factor. Arch Biochem Biophys 1959; 85: 292–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mertz W. Chromium occurrence and function in biological systems. Physiol Rev 1969; 49: 163–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Supplemental-chromium effects on glucose, insulin, glucagon, and urinary chromium losses in subjects consuming controlled low–chromium diets. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 54: 909–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stoecker BJ. Chromium. In: Ziegler EE, Filer Jr LJ, editors. Present knowledge in nutrition. 7th ed. Washington, DC: International Life Sciences Institute, 1996: 344–53Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Groff JL, Gropper SS, Hunt SM. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Minneapolis/St Paul: West Publishing Co., 1995: 385–9Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Evans GW, Bowman TD. Chromium picolinate increases membrane fluidity and rate of insulin internalization. J Inorg Biochem 1992; 46: 243–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mertz W. Chromium: history and nutritional importance. Biol Trace Elem Res 1992; 32: 3–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anderson RA, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, et al. Urinary chromium excretion and insulinogenic properties of carbohydrates. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51: 864–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Anderson RA, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, et al. Effects of carbohydrate loading and underwater exercise on circulating Cortisol, insulin and urinary losses of chromium and zinc. Eur J Appl Physiol 1991; 63: 146–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gibson RS. Principles of nutritional assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990; 513–20Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Anderson RA, Kozlovsky AS.Chromium intake, absorption and excretion of subjects consuming self-selected diets. Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 41: 1177–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anderson RA. Chromium, glucose tolerance, and diabetes. Biol Trace Elem Res 1992; 32: 19–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li, Y. Effects of Brewer’s yeast on glucose tolerance and serum lipids in Chinese adults. Biol Trace Elem Res 1994; 41: 341–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Chromium supplementation of human subjects: effects on glucose, insulin, and lipid variables. Metabolism 1983; 32: 894–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Riales R, Albrink M. Effect of chromium chloride supplementation on glucose tolerance and serum lipids including high-density lipoprotein of adult men. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34: 2670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA et al. Effects of supplemental chromium of patients with symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia. Metabolism 1987; 36: 351–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roeback Jr JR, Hla KM, Chambles LE, et al. Effects of chromium supplementation on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in men taking beta-blockers: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1991; 115: 917–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vinson JA, Bose P. The effect of high chromium yeast on the blood glucose control and blood lipids of normal and diabetic human subjects. Nutr Rep Int 1984; 30: 911–9Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elwood JC, Nash DT, Streeten DH. Effect of high-chromium brewer’s yeast on human serum lipids. J Am Coll Nutr 1982; 1: 263–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hermann J, Arquitt A, Stoecker BJ. Effect of chromium supplementation on plasma lipids, apoproteins, and glucose in elderly subjects. Nutr Res 1994; 14: 671–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abraham AS, Brooks BA, Eylath U. The effects of chromium supplementation on serum glucose and lipids in patients with and without non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Metabolism 1992; 41: 768–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang MM, Fox EA, Stoecker BJ et al. Serum cholesterol of adults supplemented with brewer’s yeast or chromium chloride. Nutr Res 1989; 9: 989–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lefavi RG, Wilson GD, Keith RE, et al. Lipid-lowering effect of a dietary chromium (III)-nicotinic acid complex in male athletes. Nutr Res 1993; 13: 239–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kleiner SM, Bazzarre TL, Ainsworth BE. Nutritional status of nationally ranked elite bodybuilders. Int J Sport Nutr 1994; 4: 54–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    National Research Council. Recommended dietary allowances, 10th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989: 241–3Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Anderson RA. Nutritional role of chromium in glucose and lipid metabolism of humans. In: Collery Ph, Poirier LA, Manfait M, editors. Metal ions in biology and medicine. Paris: John Libbey Eurotext, 1990: 95–9Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kumpulainen JT. Chromium content of foods and diets. Biol Trace Elem Res 1992; 32: 9–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Effect of exercise (running) on serum glucose, insulin, glucagon, and chromium excretion. Diabetes 1982; 31: 212–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA. Strenuous running: acute effects on chromium, copper, zinc, and selected clinical variables in urine and serum of male runners. Biol Trace Elem Res 1984; 6: 327–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gatteschi L, Castellani W, Galvan P, et al. Effects of aerobic exercise on plasma chromium concentrations. In: Kies CV, Driskell JA, editors. Sports nutrition: minerals and electrolytes. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, 1995: 199–204Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Anderson RA, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, et al. Exercise effects on chromium excretion of trained and untrained men consuming a constant diet. J Appl Physiol 1988; 64: 249–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Anderson RA. New insights on the trace elements, chromium, copper and zinc, and exercise. Med Sport Sci 1991; 32: 38–58Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lukaski HC, Bolonchuk WW, Siders WA, et al. Chromium supplementation and resistance training: Effects of body composition, strength, and trace element status of men. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 63: 954–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Clancy S, Clarkson PM, De Cheke M, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition, strength, and urinary chromium loss in football players. Int J Sport Nutr 1994; 4: 142–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hallmark MA, Reynolds TH, De Souza CA, et al. Effects of chromium and resistive training on muscle strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: 139–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Evans GW. Chromium picolinate is an efficacious and safe supplement [letter]. Int J Sport Nutr 1993; 3: 117–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lefavi, RG. Response [letter]. Int J Sport Nutr 1993; 3: 120–2Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Evans GW, Pouchnik DJ. Composition and biological activity of chromium-pyridine carboxylate complexes. J Inorg Biochem 1993; 49: 177–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Evans GW. The effect of chromium picolinate on insulin controlled parameters in humans. Int J Biosocial Med Res 1989; 11: 163–80Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hasten DL, Rome EP, Franks BD, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate on beginning weight training students. Int J Sport Nutr 1992; 2: 343–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Trent LK, Thieding-Cancel D. Effects of chromium picolinate on body composition. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1995; 35: 273–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Clarkson PM. Nutritional ergogenic aids: chromium, exercise, and muscle mass. Int J Sport Nutr 1991; 3: 289–93Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Clarkson PM, Haymes EM. Trace mineral requirements for athletes. Int J Sport Nutr 1994; 4: 104–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lefavi RG, Anderson RA, Keith RE, et al. Efficacy of chromium supplementation in athletes: emphasis of anabolism. Int J Sport Nutr 1992; 2(2): 111–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stearns DM, Wise Sr JP, Patierno S, et al. Chromium (III) picolinate produces chromosome damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells. FASEB J 1995; 9: 1643–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    McCarty MF. Chromium (III) picolinate [letter]. FASEB J 1996; 10: 365–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stearns DM, Beibruno JJ, Wetterhahn KE. A prediction of chromium (III) accumulation in humans from chromium dietary supplements. FASEB J 1995; 9: 1650–7PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Exercise Science, Totman BuildingUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

Personalised recommendations