Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 139–148 | Cite as

Effort Perception in Children

  • Kevin L. Lamb
  • Roger G. Eston
Leading Article

Summary

Studies addressing children’s perceptions of exercise effort have appeared steadily in the scientific literature over the last 20 years, though they have been relatively sparse in number. With little or no regard for their suitability, researchers initially applied to children the methods and applications of the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) notion established amongst adults. Whilst some success was claimed, findings were inconclusive, possibly because of the use of an inappropriate measurement scale. More recently, the development of the child-specific Children’s Effort Rating Table (CERT) has advanced research in this domain and helped to focus attention on the numerous problems of applying this psychophysical concept to such immature subjects. Accordingly, the scope for further research in this discipline is now far broader than ever before.

Keywords

Exercise Intensity Effort Perception Physical Education Lesson Exercise Effort Human Kinetic Publisher 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Carton RL, Rhodes EC. A critical review of the literature on rating scales for perceived exertion. Sports Med 1985; 2(3): 198–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Watt B, Grove R. Perceived exertion: antecedents and applications. Sports Med 1993; 15(4): 225–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Williams JG, Eston RG. Determination of the intensity dimension in vigorous exercise programmes with particular reference to the use of the rating of perceived exertion. Sports Med 1989; 8(3): 177–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Borg G. Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scan J Rehab Med 1970; 2–3: 92-8Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Borg G. An introduction to Borg’s RPE-scale. Ithaca (NY): Mouvement Publications, 1985Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bar-Or O. Age-related changes in exercise perception. In: Borg G, editor. Physical work and effort. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1977: 255–6Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kahle C, Ulmer HV, Rummel L. The reproducibility of Borg’s RPE scale with female pupils from 7 to 11 years of age [abstract]. Eur J Physiol 1977; 368: R26Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davies CTM, Fohlin L, Thoren C. Perception of exertion in anorexia nervosa patients. In: Berg K, Eriksson BO, editors. Children and exercise IX. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1980: 327–32Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bar-Or O, Reed S. Rating of perceived exertion in adolescents with neuromuscular disease. In: Borg G, Ottoson D, editors. The perception of exertion in physical work. Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1986: 137–48Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eston RG, Williams JG. Exercise intensity and perceived exertion in adolescent boys. Br J Sports Med 1986; 20: 27–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miyashita M, Onedera K, Tabata I. How Borg’s RPE scale has been applied to Japanese. In: Borg G, Ottoson D, editors. The perception of exertion in physical work. Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1986: 27–34Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Van Huss WD, Stephens KE, Vogel P, et al. Physiological and perceptual responses of elite age group distance runners during progressive intermittent work to exhaustion. In: Weiss M, Gould D, editors. Sport for children and youth. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics Publishers, 1986; 239–46Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ward DS, Blimkie CJR, Bar-Or O. Rating of perceived exertion in obese adolescents [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1986; 18: S72Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alekseev, VM. Correlation between heart rate and subjectively perceived exertion during muscular work. Hum Physiol 1989; 15: 39–44Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gillach MC, Sallis JF, Buono ML, et al. The relationship between perceived exertion and heart rate in children and adults. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1989; 1: 360–8Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lamb KL. Children’s ratings of effort during cycle ergometry: an examination of the validity of two effort rating scales. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1995; 7: 407–21Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Meyer F, Bar-Or O, Wilk B. Children’s perceptual responses to ingesting drinks of different compositions during and following exercise in the heat. Int J Sports Nutr 1995; 5: 13–24Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ward DS, Bar-Or O. Use of the Borg scale in exercise prescription for overweight youth. Can J Sports Sci 1990; 15: 120–5Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ward DS, Jackman JD, Galiano FJ. Exercise intensity reproduction: children versus adults. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1991; 3: 209–18Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Eakin BL, Finta KM, Serwer GA, et al. Perceived exertion and exercise intensity in children with or without structural heart defects. J Pediatr 1992; 120: 90–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mahon AD, Marsh ML. Reliability of the rating of perceived exertion at ventilatory threshold in children. Int J Sports Med 1992; 13:567–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mahon AD, Ray ML. Ratings of perceived exertion at maximal exercise in children performing different graded exercise tests. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1995; 35: 38–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tolfrey K, Mitchell J. Ratings of perceived exertion at standard and relative exercise intensities in prepubertal, teenage and young adult males. J Sports Sci 1996; 14(1): 101–2Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ward DS, Bar-Or O, Longmuir P, et al. Use of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) to prescribe exercise intensity for wheelchair-bound children and adults. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1995; 7: 94–102Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ueda T, Kurokawa T. Validity of heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion as indices of exercise intensity in a group of children while swimming. Eur J Appl Physiol 1991; 63:200–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nystad W, Oseid S, Mellbye EB. Physical education for asthmatic children: the relationship between changes in heart rate, perceived exertion, and motivation for participation. In: Oseid S, Carlsen K, editors. Children and exercise XIII. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics Publishers, 1989: 369–77Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stratton G, Armstrong N. Children’s use of RPE during indoor handball lessons. J Sports Sci 1994; 12(2): 182–3Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Williams JG, Eston RG, Stretch C. Use of rating of perceived exertion to control exercise intensity in children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1991; 3: 21–7Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Eston RG, Lamb KL, Bain A, et al. Validity of a perceived exertion scale for children: a pilot study. Percept Mot Skills 1994; 78: 691–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Williams JG, Eston RG, Furlong B. CERT: a perceived exertion scale for young children. Percept Mot Skills 1994; 79: 1451–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lamb KL. Exercise regulation during cycle ergometry using the CERT and RPE scales. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1996; 8: 337–50Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Borg G. Physical work and effort. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1977: 289–93Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Skinner JS, Hutsler R, Bergsteinova V, et al. The validity and reliability of a rating scale of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports 1973; 5(2): 94–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stamford BA. Validity and reliability of subjective ratings of perceived exertion during work. Ergonomics 1976; 19(1): 53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ward DS, Bar-Or O. Usefulness of RPE scale for exercise prescription with obese youth [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987; 19: S15Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bar-Or O, Ward DS. Rating of perceived exertion in children. In: Bar-Or O, editor. Advances in pediatrie sports sciences, vol. 3. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics Publishers, 1989: 151–68Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Safrit MJ, Wood TM. Measurement concepts in physical education and exercise science. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics Publishers, 1989Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Thomas JR, Nelson JK. Research methods in physical activity. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics Publishers, 1990: 350–2Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vincent WJ. Statistics in kinesiology. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics Publishers, 1994: 178–81Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 1986; I: 307–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bland JM, Altman DG. Comparing two methods of clinical measurement: a personal history. Int J Epidemiol 1995; 24 Suppl. 1: S7–S14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Noble BJ. Clinical applications of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1982; 14:406–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Eston RG. A discussion of the concepts: exercise intensity and perceived exertion with reference to the secondary school. Phys Educ Rev 1984; 7: 19–25Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bar-Or, O. Rating of perceived exertion in children and adolescents: clinical aspects. In: Ljunggren G, Dornic S, editors. Psychophysics in action. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1989:105–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Education and Sports ScienceUniversity College ChesterChesterEngland
  2. 2.School of Sport, Health and Physical Education SciencesUniversity of WalesBangor WalesUK

Personalised recommendations