Sports Medicine

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 228–250 | Cite as

Endothelium-Mediated Control of the Coronary Circulation

Exercise Training-Induced Vascular Adaptations
  • M. H. Laughlin
  • R. M. McAllister
  • J. L. Jasperse
  • S. E. Crader
  • D. A. Williams
  • V. H. Huxley
Review Article

Summary

This review discusses the role of the endothelium in the regulation of coronary vascular function. The role of endothelium-mediated mechanisms at rest, during exercise, in exercise training-induced adaptations of coronary function and in the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD) are examined. Mechanisms of control of coronary blood flow are briefly discussed with emphasis on endothelium-mediated control of vascular resistance. The concept that the relative importance of vascular control mechanisms differs as a function of position along the coronary arterial tree is developed and discussed.

Metabolic, myogenic and endothelium-mediated control systems contribute in parallel to regulating coronary blood flow. The relative importance of these mechanisms varies throughout the coronary arterial tree. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation contributes to maintenance of resting coronary blood flow but the endothelium’s role in dilation of small resistance arteries, thereby increasing coronary blood flow during exercise, remains in question. In contrast, the endothelium plays an essential role in dilatation of the conduit coronary arteries during exercise. Atherosclerosis and CHD convert this exercise-induced dilation to a vasoconstriction, apparently due to endothelium dysfunction.

Long term increases in physical activity and exercise training alter the control of coronary blood flow. Adaptations in endothelium-mediated control play a role in these changes. However, the effects of the mode, frequency, and intensity of exercise training bouts and duration of training on adaptive changes in endothelial function have not been established. The role of the endothelium in control of the permeability characteristics of the exchange vessels in the coronary circulation is discussed. Current evidence indicates that vascular permeability is a dynamic characteristic of the vessel wall that is controlled, at least in part, by endothelium-dependent phenomena. Also, preliminary results indicate that exercise training alters microvessel permeability and the control of permeability in the coronary circulation. Further research is needed to provide clarification of the effects of exercise training on coronary endothelial control of vascular resistance and vascular permeability in atherosclerosis and CHD.

Keywords

Exercise Training Coronary Blood Flow Coronary Circulation Resistance Artery Coronary Vascular Resistance 

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Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. H. Laughlin
    • 1
  • R. M. McAllister
    • 1
  • J. L. Jasperse
    • 1
  • S. E. Crader
    • 1
  • D. A. Williams
    • 1
  • V. H. Huxley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Department of Physiology, and Dalton Cardiovascular Research CenterUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA

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