Sports Medicine

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 376–396 | Cite as

Aging and Muscle Function

  • Yukitoshi Aoyagi
  • Roy J. Shephard
Review Article


Most of the available data on the aging of muscle function are cross-sectional in type. Static and dynamic muscle strength seem well preserved to about 45 years of age, but performance deteriorates by about 5% per decade thereafter. There is a parallel loss of lean tissue. Because muscle biopsy specimens are not always representative of an entire muscle, it is unclear whether there is a general hypotrophy or atrophy of the muscle fibres or a selective hypoplasia and degeneration of type II fibres associated with a loss of terminal sprouting. Other influences may include a deterioration of end-plate structures with impaired excitation-contraction coupling and impaired fibre recruitment. Both contraction time and half-relaxation time are prolonged with aging, and there is a decrease of maximal contraction velocity, more marked in the legs than in the arms. On the other hand, endurance at a fixed fraction of maximal force is increased. Potential factors leading to the enhanced endurance include a poorer maximal effort and an increased proportion of type I fibres; however, there is little evidence that muscle capillarity is altered. The loss of function is generally less in the arms than in the legs, but it remains unclear whether this is an inherent biological difference, or merely a reflection of differential changes in activity patterns between the upper and the lower limbs. The male/female strength ratio does not seem to change with age, but substantial slowing or reversal of the aging process is possible through appropriate activity programmes. The preservation of muscle function has important implications for the quality of life in the frail elderly, counteracting dyspnoea, stabilising joints and extending the period of independent living by up to 20 years.


Muscle Strength Motor Unit Fibre Type Muscle Function Human Skeletal Muscle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen TH, Anderson EC, Langham WH. Total body potassium and gross body composition in relation to age. Journal of Gerontology 15: 348–357, 1960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alnaqueeb MA, Goldspink G. Interrelation of muscle fibre types, diameter and number in ageing white rats. Journal of Physiology 310: 56P, 1980Google Scholar
  3. Alnaqeeb MA, Goldspink G. Changes in fibre type, number and diameter in developing and ageing skeletal muscle. Journal of Anatomy 153: 31–45, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersen P, Henriksson J. Capillary supply of the quadriceps fe-moris muscle of man: adaptive responses to exercise. Journal of Physiology 270: 677–690, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Andonian MH, Fahim MA. Effects of endurance exercise on the morphology of mouse neuromuscular junctions during ageing. Journal of Neurocytology 16: 589–599, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aniansson A, Grimby G, Hedberg M, Rundgren A, Sperling L. Muscle function in old age. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 6 (Suppl.): 43–49, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aniansson A, Grimby G, Rundgren A. Isometric and isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength in 70-year-old men and women. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 12: 161–168, 1980aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Aniansson A, Grimby G, Nygaard E, Saltin B. Muscle fiber composition and fiber area in various age groups. Muscle and Nerve 2: 271–272, 1980bGoogle Scholar
  9. Aniansson A, Gustafsson E. Physical training in elderly men with special reference to quadriceps muscle strength and morphology. Clinical Physiology 1: 87–98, 1981Google Scholar
  10. Aniansson A, Grimby G, Hedberg, Krotkiewski M. Muscle morphology, enzyme activity and muscle strength in elderly men and women. Clinical Physiology 1: 73–86, 1981Google Scholar
  11. Aniansson A, Sperling L, Rundgren A, Lehnberg E. Muscle function in 75 year old men and women, a longitudinal study. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 9 (Suppl.): 92–102, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Aniansson A, Hedberg M, Henning G-B, Grimby G. Muscle morphology, enzymatic activity, and muscle strength in elderly men: a follow-up study. Muscle and Nerve 9: 585–591, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Aniansson A, Zetterberg C, Hedberg M, Henriksson KG. Impaired muscle function with aging: a background factor in the incidence of fractures of the proximal end of the femur. Clinical Orthopaedics 191: 193–201, 1984Google Scholar
  14. Aoyagi Y, Katsuta S. Relationship between the starting age of training and physical fitness in old age. Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences 15: 65–71, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Appell HJ. Proliferation of motor end-plates induced by increased muscular activity. International Journal of Sports Medicine 5: 125–129, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Asmussen E. Muscular exercise. In Fenn & Rahn (Eds) Handbook of physiology: section 3, Respiration, Vol. 2, pp. 939–978, American Physiological Society, Washington, 1965Google Scholar
  17. Asmussen E. Aging and exercise. In Horvath & Jousef (Eds) Environmental physiology: aging, heat and altitude, pp. 419–428, Elsevier, New York, 1980Google Scholar
  18. Asmussen E, Heeboll-Nielsen K. Isometric muscle strength of adult men and women. Communications from the Testing and Observation Institute, Danish Infantile Paralysis Association 11: 1–44, 1961Google Scholar
  19. Ästrand P-O, Rodahl K. Textbook of work physiology: physiological cases of exercise, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986Google Scholar
  20. Barker D, Ip MC. The probable existence of a process of motor end-plate replacement. Journal of Physiology 176: 11–12P, 1965Google Scholar
  21. Belanger AY, McComas AJ, Elder GBC. Physiological properties of two antagonistic human muscle groups. European Journal of Applied Physiology 51: 381–393, 1983Google Scholar
  22. Birren J. Age changes in speed of simple response and perception and their significance for complex behaviour. In Old age in the modern world, chapter 8: Experimental studies of changes in performance with age, pp. 235–247, E & S Livingstone, London, 1955Google Scholar
  23. Blomstrand E, Ekblom, B. The needle biopsy technique for fibre type determination in human skeletal muscle — a methodological study. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 116: 437–442, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Blomstrand E, Celsing F, Friden J, Ekblom B. How to calculate human muscle fibre areas in biopsy samples — methodological considerations. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 122: 545–551, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Borges O. Isometric and isokinetic knee extension and flexion torque in men and women aged 20–70. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 21: 45–53, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Borges O, Essen-Gustavsson B. Enzyme activities in type I and II muscle fibres of human skeletal muscle in relation to age and torque development. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 136: 29–36, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Borkan GA, Hults DE, Gerzof SG, Robbins AH, Silbert CK. Age changes in body composition revealed by computed tomography. Journal of Gerontology 38: 673–677, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brodai P, Ingjer F, Hermansen L. Capillary supply of skeletal muscle fibers in untrained and endurance-trained men. American Journal of Physiology 232: H705–H712, 1977Google Scholar
  29. Brooke MH, Engel WK. The histographic analysis of human muscle biopsies with regard to fiber types: 1. Adult muscle and female. Neurology 19: 221–233, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Brooks GA. Lactate production under fully aerobic conditions: the lactate shuttle during rest and exercise. Federation Proceedings 45: 2924–2929, 1986aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Brooks GA. The lactate shuttle during exercise and recovery. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 18: 360–368, 1986bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Brooks SV, Faulkner JA. Contractile properties of skeletal muscles from young, adult and aged mice. Journal of Physiology 404: 71–82, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bylund A-C, Bjuro T, Cederblad G, Holm J, Lundholm K, et al. Physical training in man. Skeletal muscle metabolism in relation to muscle morphology and running ability. European Journal of Applied Physiology 36: 151–169, 1977Google Scholar
  34. Caccia MR, Harris JB, Johnson MA. Morphology and physiology of skeletal muscle in aging rodents. Muscle and Nerve 2: 202–212, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Campbell CJ, Bonen A, Kirby RL, Beicastro AN. Muscle fiber composition and performance capacities of women. Medicine and Science in Sports 11: 260–265, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Campbell MJ, McComas AJ, Petito F. Physiological changes in ageing muscles. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 36: 174–182, 1973Google Scholar
  37. Canada Health Survey. Ottawa: health and welfare, Canada, 1982Google Scholar
  38. Cardasis CA. Ultrastructural evidence of continued reorganization at the aging (11–26 months) rat soleus neuromuscular junction. Anatomical Record 207: 399–415, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cardasis CA, LaFontaine DM. Aging rat neuromuscular junctions: a morphometric study of choline-esterase-stained whole mounts and ultrastructure. Muscle and Nerve 10: 200–213, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cardasis CA, Padykula HA. Ultrastructural evidence indicating reorganization at the neuromuscular junction in the normal rat soleus muscle. Anatomical Record 200: 41–59, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Carlsen RC, Walsh DA. Decrease in force potentiation and appearance of a-adrenergic mediated contracture in aging rat skeletal muscle. Pflugers Archiv — European Journal of Physiology 408: 224–230, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Clarkson PM, Kroll W, Melchionda AM. Age, isometric strength, rate of tension development and fiber type composition. Journal of Gerontology 36: 648–653, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cullumbine H, Bibile S, Wikramanayake TW, Watson RS. Influence of age, sex, physique and muscular development on physical fitness. Journal of Applied Physiology 2: 488–511, 1950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cunningham DA, Morrison D, Rice CL, Cooke C. Ageing and isokinetic plantar flexion. European Journal of Applied Physiology 56: 24–29, 1987Google Scholar
  45. Cunningham DA, Paterson DH. Discussion: exercise, fitness and aging. In Bouchard et al. (Eds) Exercise fitness and health: a consensus of current knowledge, chapter 60, pp. 699–704, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaigne, 1990Google Scholar
  46. Davies CTM, White MJ. Contractile properties of elderly human triceps surae. Gerontology 29: 19–25, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Davies CTM, White MJ, Young K. Electrically evoked and voluntary maximal isometric tension in relation to dynamic muscle performance in elderly male subjects, aged 69 years. European Journal of Applied Physiology 51: 37–43, 1983Google Scholar
  48. Davies CTM, Thomas DO, White MJ. Mechanical properties of young and elderly human muscle. Acta Medica Scandinavica (Suppl. 711): 219–226, 1986Google Scholar
  49. Daw CK, Starnes JW, White TP. Muscle atrophy and hypoplasia with aging: impact of training and food restriction. Journal of Applied Physiology 64: 2428–2432, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Drahota Z, Gutmann E. The effect of age on compensatory and ‘post-functional hypertrophy’ in cross-striated muscle. Gerontologia 6: 81–90, 1962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Edgerton RV, Smith JL, Simpson DR. Muscle fibre type populations of human leg muscles. Histochemical Journal 7: 259–266, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Eddinger TJ, Cassens RG, Moss RL. Mechanical and histochemical characterization of skeletal muscles from senescent rats. American Journal of Physiology 251: C421–C430, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Edstrom L, Larsson L. Effects of age on contractile and enzyme-histochemical properties of fast- and slow-twitch single motor units in the rat. Journal of Physiology 392: 129–145, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Edstrom L, Nystrom B. Histochemical types and sizes of fibres in normal human muscles: a biopsy study. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 45: 257–269, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Elder GCB. The heterogeneity of fibre type populations in human muscle. Medicine and Science in Sports 9: 64–65, 1977Google Scholar
  56. Elder GCB, Bradbury K, Roberts R. Variability of fiber type distributions within human muscles. Journal of Applied Physiology 53: 1473–1480, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Essen B, Haggmark T. Lactate concentration in type I and II muscle fibres during muscular contraction in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 95: 344–346, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Essen-Gustavsson B, Borges O. Enzyme profiles in Type I and II fibre populations of 70 year old men and women. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 123: 23A, 1985Google Scholar
  59. Essen-Gustavsson B, Borges O. Histochemical and metabolic characteristics of human skeletal muscle in relation to age. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 126: 107–114, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Fiatarone MA, Marks EC, Ryan ND, Meredith CN, Lipsitz LA, et al. High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians. Effects on skeletal muscle. Journal of the American Medical Association 263: 3029–3034, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Fisher MB, Birren JE. Age and strength. Journal of Applied Psychology 31: 490–497, 1947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Fitts RH, Troup JP, Witzmann FA, Holloszy JO. The effect of ageing and exercise on skeletal muscle function. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 27: 161–172, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Fleg JL, Lakatta EG. Role of muscle loss in the age-associated reduction in V02max. Journal of Applied Physiology 65: 1147–1151, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Forbes GB. The adult decline in lean body mass. Human Biology 48: 161–173, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Frontera WR, Meredith CN, O’Reilly KP, Knuttgen HG, Evans WJ. Strength conditioning in older men: skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improved function. Journal of Applied Physiology 64: 1038–1044, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fried T, Shephard RJ. Assessment of a lower extremity training program. Canadian Medical Association Journal 103: 260–266, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Froese EA, Houston ME. Torque-velocity characteristics and muscle fiber type in human vastus lateralis. Journal of Applied Physiology 59: 309–314, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fugl-Meyer AR, Gustafsson L, Burstedt Y. Isokinetic and static plantar flexion characteristics. European Journal of Applied Physiology 45: 221–234, 1980Google Scholar
  69. Galton, F. Record of family faculties; consisting of tabular forms and direction, Macmillan, London, 1884Google Scholar
  70. Gollnick PD, Armstrong RB, Saubert IVCW, Piehl K, Saltin B. Enzyme activity and fiber composition in skeletal muscle of untrained and trained men. Journal of Applied Physiology 33: 312–319, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gonyea WJ, Sale DG, Gonyea FB, Mikesky A. Exercise induced increases in muscle fiber number. European Journal of Applied Physiology 55: 137–141, 1986Google Scholar
  72. Green HJ, Klug GA, Reichman H, Seedorf V, Weihrer W, Pette D. Exercise-induced fibre type transitions with regard to myosin parvalbumin and sacroplasmic reticulum in muscles of the rat. Plugers Archives 400: 432–436, 1984Google Scholar
  73. Grimby G. Physical activity and muscle training in the elderly. Acta Medica Scandinavica (Suppl. 711): 233–237, 1986Google Scholar
  74. Grimby G, Aniansson A, Zetterbeurg C, Saltin B. Is there a change in relative muscle fibre composition with age? Clinical Physiology 4: 189–194, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Grimby G, Danneskiold-Samsoe B, Hvid K, Saltin B. Morphology and enzymatic capacity in arm and leg muscles in 78–81 year old men and women. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 115: 125–134, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Grimby G, Saltin B. Mini-review. The ageing muscle. Clinical Physiology 3: 209–218, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Gutmann E, Hanzlikova V. Motor unit in old age. Nature 209: 921–922, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Gutmann E, Hanzlikova V. Age changes in the neuromuscular system, Scientechnica (publications) Ltd, Bristol, 1972Google Scholar
  79. Gutmann E, Hanzlickova V. Basic mechanisms of aging in the neuromuscular system. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 1: 327–349, 1972/73Google Scholar
  80. Gutmann E, Hanzlikova V. Fast and slow motor units in ageing. Gerontology 22: 280–300, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Gutmann E, Syrovy I. Contraction properties and myosin-AT-Pase activity of fast and slow senile muscles of the rat. Gerontologia 20: 239–244, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gutmann E, Hanzlikova V, Jakoubek B. Changes in the neuromuscular system during old age. Experimental Gerontology 3: 141–146, 1968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Gutmann E, Hanzlikova V, Vyskocil F. Age changes in cross-striated muscle of the rat. Journal of Physiology 216: 331–343, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gutmann E, Melichna J, Syrovy I. Contraction properties and ATPase activity in fast and slow muscle of the rat during denervation. Experimental Neurology 36: 488–497, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Halkjaer-Kristensen J, Ingemann-Hansen T. Variations in single fibre areas and fibre composition in needle biopsies from the human quadriceps muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 41: 391–395, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hansen JW. Effect of dynamic training on the isometric endurance of the elbow flexors. Internationale Zeitschrift für Anagwandte Physiologie 23: 367–370, 1967Google Scholar
  87. Hashizume K, Kanda K, Burke RE. Medial gastrocnemius motor nucleus in the rat: age-related changes in the number and size of motoneurons. Journal of Comparative Neurology 269: 425–430, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Heath GW, Hagberg JM, Ehsani AA, Holloszy JO. A physiological comparison of young and older endurance athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology 51: 634–640, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hettinger T. Physiology of strength. C.C. Thomas, Springfield, 1961Google Scholar
  90. Holloszy JO, Coyle EF. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences. Journal of Applied Physiology 56: 831–838, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hooper ACB. Length, diameter and number of ageing skeletal muscle fibres. Gerontology 27: 121–126, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hoppeler H. Exercise-induced ultra structural changes in skeletal muscle. International Journal of Sports Medicine 7: 187–204, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hoppeler H, Howald H, Conley K, Lidstedt SL, Classen H, et al. Endurance training in humans: aerobic capacity and structure of skeletal muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology 59: 320–327, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Howald H. Training-induced morphological and functional changes in skeletal muscle. International Journal of Sports Medicine 3: 1–12, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hulten B, Thorstensson A, Sjodin B, Karlsson J. Relationship between isometric endurance and fibre types in human leg muscles. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 93: 135–138, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ihemelandu EC. Decrease in fibre numbers of dog pectineus muscle with age. Journal of Anatomy 130: 69–73, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ikai M, Fukunaga T. Calculation of muscle strength per unit cross-sectional area of human muscle by means of ultra-sonic measurement. Internationale Zeitschrift für Angewandte Physiologie 26: 26–32, 1968Google Scholar
  98. Ikai M, Yabe K, Ishii K. Muskelkraft und muskuläre Ermüdung bei willkürlicher Anspannung und elektrischer Reizung des Muskels. Sportarzt und Sportmedizin 5: 197–211, 1967Google Scholar
  99. Ingjer F. Effects of endurance training on muscle fibre ATPase activity, capillary supply and mitochondrial content in man. Journal of Physiology 294: 419–432, 1979aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Ingjer F. Capillary supply and mitochondrial content of different skeletal muscle fiber types in untrained and endurance-trained men: a histochemical and ultrastructural study. European Journal of Applied Physiology 40: 197–209, 1979bGoogle Scholar
  101. Ingjer F, Brodai P. Capillary supply of skeletal muscle fibers in untrained and endurance-trained women. European Journal of Applied Physiology 38: 291–299, 1978Google Scholar
  102. Irving JB, Kusumi F, Bruce RA. Longitudinal variations in maximal oxygen consumption in healthy men. Clinical Cardiology 3: 134–136, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Ishihara A, Naitoh H, Katsuta S. Effects of ageing on the total number of muscle fibers and motoneurons of the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles in the rat. Brain Research 435: 355–358, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Jennekens FGI, Tomlinson BE, Walton JN. Histochemical aspects of five limb muscles in old age: an autopsy study. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 14: 259–276, 1971aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Jennekens FGI, Tomlinson BE, Walton JN. The sizes of the two main histochemical fibre types in five limb muscles in man: an autopsy study. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 13: 281–292, 1971bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Jennekens FGI, Tomlinson BE, Walton JN. Data on the distribution of fibre types in five human limb muscles: an autopsy study. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 14: 245–257, 1971cPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Johnson T. Age-related differences in isometric and dynamic strength and endurance. Physical Therapy 62: 985–989, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Johnson MA, Polgar J, Weightman D, Appleton D. Data on the distribution of fibre types in thirty-six human muscles: an autopsy study. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 18: 111–129, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Kasch, FW, Wallace JP, Van Camp SP. Effects of 18 years of endurance exercise on the physical work capacity of older men. Journal of Cardiac Rehabilitation 5: 308–312, 1985Google Scholar
  110. Katsuta S, Kanao Y, Aoyagi Y. Is exhaustive training adequate preparation for endurance performance? European Journal of Applied Physiology 58: 68–73, 1988Google Scholar
  111. Kavanagh T, Shephard RJ. Can regular sports participation slow the aging process? Some further data on Masters athletes. Physician and Sportsmedicine 18 (6): 94–104, 1990Google Scholar
  112. Kay C, Shephard RJ. On muscle strength and the threshold of anaerobic work. Internationale Zeitschrift für Angewandte Physiologie 27: 311–328, 1969Google Scholar
  113. Kilbom A. Circulatory adaptation during static muscular contractions: a review. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health 2: 1–13, 1976Google Scholar
  114. Klein C, Cunningham DA, Paterson DH, Taylor AW. Fatigue and recovery contractile properties of young and elderly men. European Journal of Applied Physiology 57: 684–690, 1988Google Scholar
  115. Kuno S, Katsuta S, Inouye T, Anno I, Matsumoto K, et al. Relationship between MR relaxation time and muscle fiber composition. Radiology 169: 567–568, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Kuno S, Katsuta S, Akisada M, Anno I, Matsumoto K. Effect of strength training on the relationship between magnetic response relaxation time and muscle fibre composition. European Journal of Applied Physiology 61: 33–36, 1990Google Scholar
  117. LaForest S, St-Pierre DMM, Cyr J, Gayton D. Effects of age and regular exercise on muscle strength and endurance. European Journal of Applied Physiology 60: 104–111, 1990Google Scholar
  118. Larsson L. Morphological and functional characteristics of the ageing skeletal muscle in man: a cross-sectional study. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica (Suppl. 457): 1–36, 1978Google Scholar
  119. Larsson L. Physical training effects on muscle morphology in sedentary males at different ages. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 14: 203–206, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Larsson L. Histochemical characteristics of human skeletal muscle during aging. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 117: 469–471, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Larsson L, Edstrom L. Effects of age on enzyme-histochemical fibre spectra and contractile properties of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles in the rat. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 76: 69–89, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Larsson L, Grimby G, Karlsson J. Muscle strength and speed of movement in relation to age and muscle morphology. Journal of Allied Physiology 46: 451–456, 1979Google Scholar
  123. Larsson L, Karlsson J. Isometric and dynamic endurance as a function of age and skeletal muscle characteristics. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 104: 129–136, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Larsson L, Sjodin B, Karlsson J. Histochemical and biochemical changes in human skeletal muscle with age in sedentary males age 22–65 years. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 103: 31–39, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Layman DK, Hegarty PVJ, Swan PB. Comparison of morphological and biochemical parameters of growth in rat skeletal muscles. Journal of Anatomy 130: 159–171, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Lennmarken C, Bergman T, Larsson J, Larsson L-E. Skeletal muscle function in man: force, relaxation rate, endurance and contraction time — dependence on sex and age. Clinical Physiology 5: 243–255, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Lewkowicz SJ. Motor innervation of the gastrocnemius muscle of wobbler and dystrophic mice. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 43: 405–419, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Lexell J, Henriksson-Larsen K, Winblad B, Sjostrom M. Distribution of different fiber types in human skeletal muscles: effects of aging studied in whole muscle cross-sections. Muscle and Nerve 6: 588–595, 1983aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lexell J, Henriksson-Larsen K, Sjostrom M. Distribution of different fibre types in human skeletal muscles: 2. A study of cross-sections of whole m. vastus lateralis. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 117: 115–122, 1983bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Lexell J, Downham D, Sjostrom M. Distribution of different fibre types in human skeletal muscles: a statistical and computational study of the fibre type arrangement in M. Vastus Lateralis of young healthy males. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 65: 353–365 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Lexell J, Downham D, Sjostrom M. Distribution of different fibre types in human skeletal muscles: fibre type arrangement in m. vastus lateralis from three groups of healthy men between 15 and 83 years. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 72: 211–222, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Lexell J, Taylor CC, Sjostrom M. What is the cause of the ageing atrophy? Total number, size and proportion of different fiber types studied in whole vastus lateralis muscle from 15- to 83-year old men. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 84: 275–294, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Lithell H, Lindgarde F, Hellsing K, Lundqvist G, Nygaard E, et al. Body weight, skeletal muscle morphology, and enzyme activities in relation to fasting serum insulin concentration and glucose tolerance in 48-year-old man. Diabetes 30: 19–25, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. MacDougall JD, Sale DG, Elder GCB, Sutton JR. Muscle ultra-structural characteristics of elite powerlifters and bodybuilders. European Journal of Applied Physiology 48: 117–126, 1982Google Scholar
  135. MacLennan WJ, Hall MRP, Timothy JI, Robinson M. Is weakness in old age due to muscle wasting? Age and Ageing 9: 188–192, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Mainwood GW, Renaud JM. The effect of acid-base balance on fatigue of skeletal muscle. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 63: 403–416, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. McCarter R. Effects of age on contraction of mammalian skeletal muscle. In Kalkor & Dibattista (Eds) Aging in muscle, pp. 1–22, Raven Press, New York, 1978Google Scholar
  138. McDonagh MJN, White MJ, Davies CTM. Different effects of ageing on the mechanical properties of human arm and leg muscles. Gerontology 30: 49–54, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. McGlynn GH. Strength and endurance gains and their relationships. Internationale Zeitschrift für Angewandte Physiologie 26: 323–329, 1968Google Scholar
  140. Mertens DJ, Shephard RJ, Kavanagh T. Long-term exercise therapy for chronic obstructive lung disease. Respiration 35: 96–107, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Meyer RA, Terjung RL. Differences in ammonia and adenylate metabolism in contracting fast and slow muscle. American Journal of Physiology 237: C111–C118, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Montegriffo VME. Height and weight of a United Kingdom adult population with a review of the anthropometric literature. Annals of Human Genetics 31: 389–399, 1968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Moritani T, deVries HA. Potential for gross muscle hypertrophy in older men. Journal of Gerontology 35: 672–682, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Murray MP, Gardner GM, Mollinger LA, Sepie SB. Strength of isometric and isokinetic contractions. Knee muscles of men aged 20 to 86. Physical Therapy 60: 412–419, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Murray MP, Duthie EH, Gambert SR, Sepie SB, Mollinger LA. Age-related differences in knee muscle strength in normal women. Journal of Gerontology 40: 275–280, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Myers SJ, Sullivan WP. Effect of circulatory occlusion on time to muscular fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology 24: 54–59, 1968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Nelson RM, Soderberg GL, Urbscheit NL. Alteration of motor-unit discharge characteristics in aged humans. Physical Therapy 64: 29–34, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Nygaard E. Skeletal muscle fibre characteristics in young women. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 112: 299–304, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Nygaard E, Sanchez J. Intramuscular variation of fiber types in the brachial biceps and the lateral vastus muscles of elderly men: how representative is a small biopsy sample? Anatomical Record 203: 451–459, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Orlander J, Kiessling K-H, Larsson L, Karlsson J, Aniansson A. Skeletal muscle metabolism and ultrastructure in relation to age in sedentary men. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 104: 249–261, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Orlander J, Aniansson A. Effects of physical training on skeletal muscle metabolism and ultrastructure in 70- to 75-year-old men. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 109: 149–154, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Overstall PW, Exton-Smith AN, Imms FJ, Johnson AL. Falls in the elderly related to postural imbalance. British Medical Journal 1: 261–264, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Overstall PW. Prevention of falls in the elderly. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 28: 481–484, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Parízková J. Impact of age, diet, and exercise on man’s body composition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 110: 661–674, 1963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Parízková J, Eiselt E, Sprynarova S, Wachtlova M. Body composition, aerobic capcity and density of muscle capillaries in young and old men. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 323–325, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Payton OD, Poland JL. Aging process: implications for clinical practice. Physical Therapy 63: 41–48, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Pearson MB, Bassey EJ, Bendali MJ. Muscle strength and anthropometric indices in elderly men and women. Age and Ageing, 14: 49–54, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Pestronk A, Drachman DB, Griffin JW. Effects of aging on nerve sprouting and regeneration. Experimental Neurology 70: 65–82, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Peterson FR, Grandal H, Hansseb JW, Houd H. Effect of varying the number of contractions on dynamic muscle training. Arbeitsphysiologie 18: 468–473, 1961Google Scholar
  160. Petrofsky JS, Lind AR. Aging, isometric strength and endurance, and cardiovascular responses to static effort. Journal of Applied Physiology 38: 91–95, 1975aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Petrofsky JS, Lind AR. Isometric strength, endurance, and the blood pressure and heart rate responses during isometric exercise in healthy men and women, with special reference to age and body fat content. Pflugers Archiv — European Journal of Physiology 360: 49–61, 1975bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Petrofsky JS, Lind AR. The relationship of body fat content to deep muscle temperature and isometric endurance in man. Clinical Science and Molecular Medicine 48: 405–412, 1975cPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Pette D. Activity-induced fast to slow transitions in mammalian muscle. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 16: 517–528, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Polgar J, Johnson MA, Weightman D, Appleton D. Data in fibre size in thirty-six human muscles: an autopsy study. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 19: 307–318, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Pollock ML, Wilmore JH. Exercise in health and disease: evaluation and prescription for prevention and rehabilitation, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1990Google Scholar
  166. Pollock ML, Miller HS, Wilmore J. Physiological characteristics of champion American track athletes 40 to 75 years of age. Journal of Gerontology 29: 645–649, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Pollock ML, Foster C, Knapp D, Rod JL, Schmidt DH. Effect of age and training on aerobic capacity and body composition of master athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology 62: 725–731, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Prince FP, Hikida RS, Hagerman FC, Staron RS, Allen WH. A morphometric analysis of human muscle fibers with relation to fiber types and adaptations to exercise. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 49: 165–179, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Quetelet A. Sur l’homme et le développement de ses facultés, Bachelier Imprimeure-Libraire, Paris, 1835Google Scholar
  170. Reijs JHO. Über die Veränderung der Kraft wahrend der Bewegung. Pflugers Archiv — European Journal of Physiology, 191: 234–257, 1921Google Scholar
  171. Rikli R, Busch S. Motor performance of women as a function of age and physical activity level. Journal of Gerontology 41: 645–649, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Rode A, Shephard J. Cardiorespiratory fitness of an Arctic community. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 519–526, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Romanul FCA. Capillary supply and metabolism of muscle fibers. Archives of Neurology 12: 497–509, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Rosenheimer JL. Effects of chronic stress and exercise on age-related changes in end-plate architecture. Journal of Neurophysiology 53: 1582–1589, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Rosler K, Hoppeler H, Conley KE, Claassen H, Gehr P, et al. Transfer effects in endurance exercise: adaptations in trained and untrained muscles. European Journal of Applied Physiology 54: 355–362, 1985Google Scholar
  176. Royce J. Isometric fatigue curves in human muscle with normal and occluded circulation. Research Quarterly 29: 204–212, 1958Google Scholar
  177. Saltin B, Gollnick PD. Skeletal muscle adaptability. Significance for metabolism and performance.In Peacher et al. (Eds) Handbook of physiology, section 10: skeletal muscle, pp. 555–633, Americam Physiological Society, Washington, 1983Google Scholar
  178. Saltin B, Nygaard E, Rasmussen B. Skeletal muscle adaptation in man following prolonged exposure to high altitude. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 109: 31A, 1980Google Scholar
  179. Sato T, Tauchi H. Age changes in human vocal muscle. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 18: 67–74, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Sato T, Akatsuka H, Kito K, Tokoro Y, Tauchi H, et al. Age changes in size and number of muscle fibers in human minor pectoral muscle. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 28: 99–109, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Scelsi R, Marchetti C, Poggi P. Histochemical and ultrastructural aspects of M. Vastus Lateralis in sedentary old people (age 65-89 years). Acta Neuropathologica 51: 99–105, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Sécher NH, Rorsgaard S, Sécher O. Contralateral influence on recruitment of curarized muscle fibres during maximal voluntary extension of the legs. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 103: 456–462, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Shephard RJ. Some determinants of continuous and intermittent handgrip endurance. Spor Hekim Derglisi 9: 89–103, 1974Google Scholar
  184. Shephard RJ. Physical activity and aging, 2nd ed., Croom Helm Publishing, London, 1987Google Scholar
  185. Shephard RJ. Body composition in biological anthropology, Cambridge University Press, London, 1991Google Scholar
  186. Shephard RJ, Rode A. Acculturation and the biology of aging. In Fortuine (Ed.) Circumpolar health ’84, pp. 45–48, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1985Google Scholar
  187. Sica REP, McComas AJ, Upton ARM, Longmire D. Motor unit estimations in small muscles of the hand. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 37: 55–67, 1974Google Scholar
  188. Silbermann M, Finkelbrand S, Weiss A, Gershon D, Reznick A. Morphometric analysis of aging skeletal muscle following endurance training. Muscle and Nerve 6: 136–142, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Simonson E. Physical fitness and work capacity of older men. Geriatrics 2: 110–119, 1947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Sjodin B. Lactate dehydrogenase in human skeletal muscle. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica (Suppl. 436): 1–32, 1976Google Scholar
  191. Sjogaard G. Muscle enzyme activities in relation to maximal oxygen uptake. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 112: 12A, 1981Google Scholar
  192. Sjostrom M, Angquist K-A, Rais O. Intermittent claudication and muscle fiber fine structure: correlation between clinical and morphological data. Ultrastructural Pathology 1: 309–326, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Sjostrom M, Angquist K-A, Bylund A-C, Friden J, Gustavsson L, et al. Morphometric analyses of human muscle fiber types. Muscle and Nerve 5: 538–553, 1982aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Sjostrom M, Kidman S, Henriksson J, Larsen K, Angquist K-A. Z- and M-band appearance in different histochemically defined types of human skeletal muscle fibers. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 30: 1–11, 1982bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Sperling L. Evaluation of upper extremity function in 70-year-old men and women. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 12: 139–144, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Stainsby WN. Biochemical and physiological bases for lactate production. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 18: 341–343, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Stalberg E, Fawcett PRW. Macro EMG in healthy subjects of different ages. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 45: 870–878, 1982Google Scholar
  198. Stalberg E, Borges O, Ericsson M, Essen-Gustavsson B, Fawcett PRW, et al. The quadriceps femoris muscle in 20-70-year-old subjects: relationship between knee extension torque, electrophysiological parameters, and muscle fiber characteristics. Muscle and Nerve 12: 382–389, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Stebbins CL, Schultz E, Smith RT, Smith EL. Effects of chronic exercise during aging on muscle and end-plate morphology in rats. Journal of Applied Physiology 58: 45–51, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Steen B, Bruce A, Isaksson B, Lewin T, Svanborg A. Body composition in 70-year old males and females in Gothenburg, Sweden: a population study. Acta Medica Scandinavica (Suppl. 611): 87–112, 1977Google Scholar
  201. Syrovy I, Gutmann E. Changes in speed of contraction and ATPase activity in striated muscle during old age. Experimental Gerontology 5: 31–35, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Tauchi H, Yoshioka T, Kobayashi H. Age changes of skeletal muscles of rats. Gerontologia 17: 219–227, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Tesch PA. Skeletal muscle adaptations consequent to long-term heavy resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise (Suppl. 20): S132–S134, 1988Google Scholar
  204. Tesch P, Sjodin B, Thorstensson A, Karlsson J. Muscle fatigue and its relation to lactate accumulation and LDH activity in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 103: 413–420, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Thorstensson A. Muscle strength, fibre types and enzyme activities in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica (Suppl. 443): 1–45, 1976Google Scholar
  206. Thorstensson A, Sjodin B, Tesch P, Karlsson J. Actomyosin ATPase, myokinase, CPK and LDH in human fast and slow twitch muscle fibres. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 99: 225–229, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Tinetti ME, Speechley M, Ginter SF. Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. New England Journal of Medicine 319: 1701–1709, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Tomonaga M. Histochemical and ultrastructural changes in senile human skeletal muscle. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 25: 125–131, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Tuffery AR. Growth and degeneration of motor end-plates in normal cat hind limb muscles. Journal of Anatomy 110: 221–247, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Tzankoff SP, Norris AH. Effect of muscle mass decrease on age-related BMR changes. Journal of Applied Physiology 43: 1001–1006, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Ufland JM. Einfluss des Lebensalters, Geschlechts, der Konstitution und des Berufs auf die Kraft verschiedener Muskelgruppen: I. Mitteilung: über den Einfluss des Lebensalters auf die Muskelkraft. Arbeitsphysiologie 6: 653–663, 1933Google Scholar
  212. Vandervoort AA, McComas AJ. Contractile changes in opposing muscles of the human ankle joint with aging. Journal of Applied Physiology 61: 361–367, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Wada M, Katsuda S. Changes in myoproteins following long-term with high intensity endurance training in rats. Japanese Journal of Physical Education 32: 221–229, 1988Google Scholar
  214. Walter SD, Hart LE, Sutton JR, Mcintosh JM, Gauld M. Training habits and injury experience in distance runners: age- and sex-related factors. Physician and Sportsmedicine 16: 101–113, 1988Google Scholar
  215. Wernig A, Carmody JJ, Anzil AP, Hansert E, Marciniak M, et al. Persistence of nerve sprouting with features of synapse remodelling in soleus muscles of adult mice. Neuroscience 11: 241–253, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Wernig, Herrera AA. Sprouting and remodelling at the nerve-muscle junction. Progress in Neurobiology 27: 251–291, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Wernig A, Pecot-Dechavassine M, Stover H. Sprouting and regression of the nerve at the frog neuromuscular junction in normal conditions and after paralysis with curare. Journal of Neurocytology 9: 277–303, 1980Google Scholar
  218. Young A. Exercise physiology in geriatric practice. Acta Medica Scandinavica (Suppl. 711): 227–232, 1986Google Scholar
  219. Young A, Stokes M, Crowe M. The relationship between quadriceps size and strength in elderly women. Clinical Science 63: 35P–36P, 1982Google Scholar
  220. Young A, Stokes M, Crowe M. Size and strength of the quadriceps muscles of old and young women. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 14: 282–287, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Zackin MJ, Meredith CN. Protein metabolism in aging: effects of exercise and training. In Harris & Harris (Eds) Physical activity, sport and aging, pp. 271–236, Center for Study of Aging, Albany, 1989Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yukitoshi Aoyagi
    • 1
  • Roy J. Shephard
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Physical and Health Education and Graduate Programme in Exercise Sciences, Division of Community HealthUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations